Poster Presentation Abstracts

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Fundamentals of TBL

101 - Pay Attention to Your Readiness Assurance Test and Not to Your Multiple-Choice Questions

Luan Au, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Hochiminh City

The Readiness Assurance Test (RAT) is the icon of Team-Based Learning (TBL). As an assessment tool for learning, this readiness process contributes to the learners' self-awareness, promotes self-learning, and re-directs learning processes. The RAT is a set of multiple-choice questions (MCQ) that aims to identify cognitive gaps and solve them effectively. Evidence demonstrates that a relevant RAT enhances in-class activity effectiveness, while an irrelevant RAT hinders learning. Hence, crafting a relevant RAT is a primary requirement for ensuring TBL effectiveness. Unfortunately, some RAT developers have considered writing a technically correct MCQ as the unique requirement for crafting a relevant RAT. This paper aims to discuss compelling issues influencing the relevance of readiness assurance processes, compare the current practices of writing MCQ with crafting RAT, and suggest specific practical points to practitioners for making the RAT more relevant.

Discussion and considerations
During crafting the RAT, educators should consider respecting the basic technical rules of writing MCQs, aligning the RAT blueprint with the course learning objectives, and ensuring that materials elucidate the tested concept. Those are the three general requirements influencing the validity of the RAT. Technically, educators should consider keeping the number of items reasonable, testing concepts rather than assessing separate ideas, focusing on frequently misunderstood concepts and keeping the number of difficult items reasonable. Following these recommendations ensures that educators save time and more effectively use their class time for deeper learning activities. On the other hand, targeting high-order thinking MCQs, using aggregate (all-of-the-above and none-of-the-above), and testing subjects of debates might negatively impact the relevance of RAT, so educators should avoid it. Finally, educators should systematically refer to item banks if testing similar concepts and perform item analysis to assess item relevance. These two after-match tasks help educators improve further tests.

Innovations of TBL

201 - Adopting Team-Based Learning in the Criminal Justice Classroom

Brooke Nodeland, University of North Texas
Jordan Russell, University of North Texas
Mark Saber, University of North Texas

Team-based learning (TBL) is a non-traditional instruction method that utilizes permanent teams working together to apply course content to solve problems and make decisions. TBL is well-suited for use in criminal justice courses where students are often challenged to think critically and apply complicated concepts to real world situations that have serious societal implications. This study extends prior TBL literature through a detailed review the transition of existing course materials to a TBL module. Specifically, the examples highlight the versatility of this approach in fostering critical thinking, communication skills, and decision making in the criminal justice classroom.  The presentation concludes with a discussion of future directions for TBL research and pedagogy in criminal justice and criminology.

202 - Could Team-Based Learning be Used for Post-Graduate Training?

Luan Au, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Hochiminh City

To date, there are a few published works on the use of TBL for post-graduate training (PGT). Most of them discuss the possibility of using TBL in a specific course. Published papers do not discuss deeply technical details. This paper discusses technical issues that concern making TBL relevant for PGT. PGT focuses on professional competencies, targets the highest levels of Bloom’s taxonomy and requires multi/trans-disciplinary approaches. The complexity of knowledge and the ability to apply new concepts to real-life practices are the biggest challenges when implementing TBL for PGT. In PGT, conventional RATs sound unable to find/solve more complex concerns (synthesizing/summarizing). For composing relevant PGT-RATs, the ability to link concepts concerning multiple disciplines becomes the most important requirement. PGT-RATs should be prepared by a team of experts coming from multiple disciplines. PGT-RATs should be able to assess an ability to connect multiple concepts concerning disciplines and an ability to apply multiple concepts altogether. RATs should be approved by an expert committee. Composing applications faces the same issue. Graduates are being exposed to real-life issues. In PGT, applications should focus on more complex and authentic conditions while keeping respect for the 4S principles. Expertise becomes the most important requirement for composing applications. Application should be prepared by a team of experts coming from multiple disciplines. These applications should be based on authentic situations (significant). Solutions should be supported by evidence while allowing learners to develop critical thinking (specific). The way of composing choices should be modified which allows learners to present complex solutions. Replacing conventional submitting methods in different ways should be considered. Facilitating discussion which concerns the complexity of knowledge and the ability to apply new concepts to real-life practices requires senior facilitators. TBL can be used for PGT. However, its use requires several adaptations to more complex learning outcomes.

203 - Evaluation of Synchronous and Asynchronous TBL for Distance Learning Postgraduate Pharmacists

Diane Webb, University of Bradford
Gemma Quinn, University of Bradford

University of Bradford was commissioned by NHS England to deliver a new national training programme for specialist pharmacists working in community mental health teams in England. Cohort 1 ran from May 2022 - 2023 and was evaluated, which informed changes made to the next iteration (Cohort 2). The programme uses TBL both asynchronously (AS) and synchronously (S) to deliver the curriculum in a distance learning format. There are 10 units, each of which are delivered over 4 weeks in standard TBL format.

Evaluation of the use of synchronous versus asynchronous delivery of TBL included: surveys, 1-to-1 interviews, feedback questionnaires, programme management meetings and webinars. Thematic analysis has been undertaken and the results (and will continue to) inform actions for future pathway development.

Some of the aspects of the AS versus S approach have worked well while others have needed review and change. Changes made have included; increase in time allowance window for iRAT from 48 to 72 hours; changing the release day of iRAT; introducing tRAT at the beginning of the application exercise synchronous and non-synchronous events; changing team allocations for every unit and mixing team experience; peer evaluations at the end of every unit to allow for feedback on the new team. Positive aspects of the approach include student choice of attendance at synchronous or non-synchronous events; ability to work with learners with varying experience; and knowledge that their feedback is considered which can inform changes to improve their learner experience. The next stage of the evaluation will explore student engagement with synchronous versus asynchronous elements of the pathway, using data analytics and how this impacts student satisfaction. Further quantitative and qualitative evaluation will continue to inform any future changes to ensure student attainment of core learning outcomes, satisfaction and engagement.

204 - Implementation of Moodle, an Open-Source Solution for Team-Based Learning

Reid Proctor, Mercer University
Renée Hayslett, Mercer University

In 2018 the Mercer University College of Pharmacy rolled out TBL as a college wide initiative. Conventional TBL uses IF-AT cards to deliver the team-quiz component of the Readiness Assurance Process (RAP). We observed the use of IF-AT cards in various settings and identified that their use could be challenging in a large classroom setting. The need for an electronic platform to reduce the logistical burdens of TBL was identified. 

To reduce logistical challenges in the large classroom, which includes distributing and collecting IF-AT cards, time to grade them, and additional personnel needed to facilitate this paper-based process, we implemented an instance of Moodle as a secondary learning management system (LMS), specifically configured to support team activities. Moodle, like the IF-AT cards, supports an answer until correct function along with additional capabilities such as fill-in-the-blank and select all that apply, thus allowing greater flexibility with question types. In addition to supporting the RAP, this instance of Moodle has been used to effectively deliver a variety of application activities. Since the Fall of 2018 we have used this system to support the delivery of over 350 TBL class sessions 

Two classes of students were surveyed to capture perceptions of this novel use of the Moodle system. In addition, system usage data was also collected. Over 94% of the students surveyed, indicated that the Moodle system had worked well for each TBL session. We have delivered 353 successful TBL sessions using Moodle in this way with no technical incidents. A cost analysis of the system reflects an annual cost per student of less than $8.00. 

This novel use of Moodle to support TBL has proven to be effective, reliable, and cost friendly. We will continue to develop how we use Moodle in this way.

205 - Innovations in TBL: Pharmacy Feud Interactive Game for Pharmacy Education

Ayda Awaness, West Coast University
Nadia Khartabil, West Coast University
Yuqin Hu, West Coast University

This case study presents an innovative application of Team-Based Learning (TBL) through the implementation of the Pharmacy Feud Interactive Game in pharmacy education. This presentation gives insights into the use of TBL in unconventional ways to enhance learning experiences. The Pharmacy Feud Interactive Game serves as an engaging platform for students to promote effective TBL strategies in a non-traditional manner. The case study explores the integration of the Pharmacy Feud Interactive Game within pharmacy education, catering to a variety of course types, learner demographics, and new teaching techniques. By emphasizing how gamification can be an innovative TBL approach, this presentation aims to inspire educators to think outside the box while applying the TBL methods. The session explores the practical application with competitive format of the game within TBL contexts, showcasing its adaptability to various learning environments. We will discuss how the game fosters team dynamics, problem-solving competencies, and critical thinking. The Pharmacy Feud Interactive Game not only aligns with the TBL philosophy but also enhances it by introducing elements of gamification, ultimately improving student engagement and knowledge retention. In summary, this presentation showcases an innovative TBL approach through the Pharmacy Feud Interactive Game, aiming to inspire TBL practitioners to adapt and enhance their teaching methods. By exploring unconventional avenues within TBL, educators can enrich their courses, cater to diverse learner needs, and effectively implement innovative techniques. The interactive game serves as a prime example of how TBL can be transformed and offers a steppingstone for those looking to initiate a novel chapter in TBL-based teaching.

206 - Introducing Effective Learning Strategies to First-Year Medical Students Through the Use of Team-Based Learning

Hugh Clements-Jewery, University of Illinois College of Medicine
Stephanie Williams, University of Illinois College of Medicine

Students enter medical school from a variety of academic backgrounds, and at the beginning of their medical school course work, often default to prior learning strategies that they found to be successful in their secondary education or undergraduate environments. These prior learning strategies are often rudimentary, involving strategies such as highlighting notes or 'cramming' for an exam that have been proven to be ineffective learning strategies for long-term retention of course material, and often have limited effectiveness in aiding preparation for national licensing exams. To our knowledge it is rare for medical school curricula to explicitly teach students about effective or ineffective learning strategies, and students often resort to choosing their own learning strategies based on anecdotal peer recommendations without knowledge of learning strategies that are objectively effective. Here we describe the use of Team-Based Learning (TBL) to teach entering first-year medical students learning strategies that have been objectively proven to aid long-term retention of course content. At the University of Illinois College of Medicine (Rockford, Illinois campus) we deliver a TBL module during student orientation week with the goal of improving student understanding of effective learning strategies, and through two team application exercises, application of these principles to their initial course work to enable effective course exam preparation. On a 5-point Likert scale from Not Effective (1) to Extremely Effective (5), over 6 class years, the mean session rating +/- SD from N=124 students was 4.11 +/- 0.87, indicating a high level of student satisfaction from the session. These data indicate that TBL has utility to help students understand and apply effective learning strategies in their medical school coursework.

207 - TBL in Higher Ed: The General Education Music History Classroom

April Prince, University of North Texas

This short presentation will provide an overview to using TBL in large, non-major, general education courses in the university classroom. This presentation will focus on ways to manage the readiness assurance process, craft more objective, arts-based application questions, and create a more streamlined peer-review evaluation system. While considering general educational curriculum most, this presentation will also consider the use of TBL in upper-level music history courses. In the non-major music classroom, TBL encourages avid and active listening, a more in-depth consideration of historical context, and a greater consideration of musical preference. The processes create a more dynamic, focused, and rewarding classroom experience.

208 - The Innovative Use of Simulation-Based Learning in a TBL Undergraduate Life Science Class

Elizabeth Prabhakar, Brunel Medical School
Emmanouil Kateris, Brunel University
Ruchira Mann, Brunel University
Nina Hutri-Kahonen, Tampere Univesnel

In team-based learning (TBL) pedagogy, the application exercise (AE) is used to plan learning activities using a backward design. We previously used paper based assignments to achieve the learning goals, but felt that the student engagement could be improved if we could make the learning more immersive using simulation based learning (SBL) as an AE.

Final year undergraduate science students (n>60) studying the Endocrine Disorders module, were divided into teams (n=6). They were able to access the virtual human patient simulator (vHPS), via a cloud based platform (CAE Maestro Evolve) and interact with a simulated 9 year old male patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoxia. The instructors briefed the students on the details of the scenario and challenged them to answer a number of questions based on the scenario, ranging from easy to difficult which entailed the application of prior knowledge. All TBL teams were able to report back simultaneously (‘4S’ component of AE).

At the end of the session, an anonymous poll was conducted to assess student perceptions of the immersive learning pedagogy. Overall, 95% enjoyed the TBL session, 90% enjoyed the virtual patient simulator, and 91% recommended embedding the vHPS as part of the application exercise in future TBLs. The interaction with the virtual patient simulator, was described as: helpful, great, enjoyable, interactive, fun to use, amazing, engaging and interesting and helpful in applying theoretical knowledge.

Integration of SBL into TBL was an overwhelmingly positive experience for our life sciences students. They described the immersive activity in superlative terms and suggested embedding the simulator into their TBLs. When learning becomes fun, it could lead to development of higher cognitive skills and better exam performance. We are not aware of other studies where a virtual patient has been used as an AE within TBL in such an effective way.

Research & Scholarship

301 - Effectiveness of Team-Based Learning Peer Evaluations in Assessing Student Performance

Megan Woolford, Sam Houston State University College of Osteopathic Medicine
Rebecca Andrews-Dickert, Sam Houston State University College of Osteopathic Medicine
Yuan Zhao, Sam Houston State University College of Osteopathic Medicine

A key component of Team-Based Learning (TBL) is peer evaluation, with varying methods implemented in undergraduate medical education.? However, the utility of these various methods has not been extensively studied.? This project studies the effectiveness of a rubric-based formative TBL peer evaluation process in a preclinical systems course in assessing student performance.

After completing 3 TBL modules in a preclinical systems course, students participated in a peer evaluation process consisting of an 8-item rubric that students used to anonymously evaluate their teammates on a Likert scale.? Rubric items asked about pre-class preparation, participation, and teamwork skills. Data was analyzed using descriptive and correlation analyses.? IRB exemption was granted for this project.

Overall, students rated their peers highly, with students rating peers with a 1-Rarely only 4 times, 2-Sometimes 53 times, 3-Usually 371 times, and 4-Almost Always 4828 times.? The eight rubric items’ means for the entire cohort ranged from 3.84 to 3.96, with the lowest individual student receiving a team mean rating of 3.0 on any particular item.? There was correlation between mean ratings received by individuals on rubric items ‘Comes to class prepared’, ‘Actively participated’, and ‘Responsible and dependable’ and student Individual Readiness Assurance Test (IRAT) and final exam scores.? Rubric item ratings and Team Readiness Assurance Test scores were analyzed, with no correlation between items.

Students rated their peers highly, raising concerns for using variability in peer evaluation scores to summatively assess student performance in TBL. However, individual student performance on rubric items related to preparation, active participation, and responsibility did correlate with IRAT and final exam individual performance.? These rubric items tend to be more individualized contributions to the team, whereas other rubric items were more teamwork-oriented. This suggests this cohort of medical students was able to differentiate peers’ performance on individual-oriented tasks.

302 - From Classroom to Workplace: The Longitudinal Effects of Team-Based Learning’s Self and Peer Assessment on Students’ Teamwork Skills Development

Chip Chuan Neo, Singapore Polytechnic

A three-year study was conducted to address the vital role of teamwork skills in higher education and their relevance in the workplace.  We explore the impact of Team-based Learning’s self and peer assessment within team projects to enhance students' readiness for future careers.

We conducted this study with 180 Year 3 Accountancy students at Singapore Polytechnic School of Business.  Over three years, we implemented self and peer assessment in team projects, aiming to evaluate feedback objectivity, effectiveness, and its correlation with final-year internship teamwork ratings.

Our findings indicate that the majority of students provided differentiated peer assessment ratings, highlighting the objectivity of the feedback process.  Notably, underperforming students who received formative feedback improved significantly.  Moreover, a positive correlation emerged between students’ peer assessment ratings and their internship teamwork ratings, demonstrating the value of consistent self and peer assessment in enhancing students' teamwork skills for the workplace.

In conclusion, we recommend implementing a common self and peer assessment feedback system in relevant modules with team projects to boost students' teamwork skills throughout their academic journey, ultimately enhancing their workplace readiness.


401 - Ain’t Nobody Got Time for That: A Defense of Non-randomized Student Team-Based Learning Groups in a College of Pharmacy

Jared Van Hooser, University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy
Morgan Hoeft, University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy

Effective team-based learning (TBL) requires proper formation and management of student groups. For a group to function effectively, diversity is crucial. This includes a mix of student experience and demographic characteristics. Diverse teams have a positive impact on problem-solving discussions, learning, and performance. A common group creation method is randomization, as it is the least time-consuming method for creating TBL student groups and may produce similar results in learning outcomes, team performance, and dynamics, compared to instructor-crafted student groups. Although the literature has used various criteria to intentionally develop student groups, team formation strategies have generally not shown significant differences in team performance on assessments. The time involved in creating intentionally developed groups is the chief argument against them. However, diverse student groups and associated benefits are often lost with randomly created student groups. This descriptive poster outlines a successful, time-tested approach to forming student groups in a College of Pharmacy program. The approach involves a minimal time investment from instructors and historically low team conflict. The CliftonStrengths Assessment (formerly StrengthsFinder) is used along with student experience and demographic characteristics. Additional recommendations and best practices from the Office of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion, and considerations from previous instructors in the College of Pharmacy are also used. This approach has been used in multiple courses in the program during the same semester. Other instructors, may benefit from the implementation of this method and reevaluating solely relying on randomization for student group formation.