Intersection of Pedagogy & Technology

Abstracts are in the order they will be presented for both Lightning Talk blocks on Monday, December 5

Brianne Lewis
Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine

Introduction: As medical educators teaching a diverse student body, we continuously innovate to increase opportunities for students to meaningfully interact with faculty. It can be difficult during traditional lectures to have meaningful learner-teacher interactions due to a high student:faculty ratio and the didactic nature of instruction. Research has demonstrated that audience response systems help mediate this issue. However, these modalities present feedback from students to faculty in aggregate format during the live lecture, which does not allow faculty to address students as individuals. This presentation will highlight an innovative approach for didactic teaching to foster personalized interactions between faculty and a diverse pre-clinical student body.

Methods: We developed online modules within our learning management system by adopting traditional lectures into recorded short mini-lectures interspersed with optional formative questions. At the end of each module, students can opt to submit a "muddiest" (i.e. most confusing) point for individualized just-in-time instructor feedback. Faculty can initiate individualized dialogues within the module through written or video feedback on student submissions on the formative questions and "muddiest" points in a timely and accessible manner. Preliminary

Results: Since implementation 3 years ago, students have opted to initiate communication through the modules, allowing for personalized instructor interactions. We believe students feel more comfortable to ask a question and engage in meaningful dialogue in a private chat rather than to their class at large. A benefit to students is an "open portal" to the instructor for communicating their muddiest point. Students often go beyond content questions and share study goals, relate the content to life experiences or other course content, or even share a personal connection.

Conclusions: While the modules break several student learning barriers, there are challenges associated with this method. It is time consuming for faculty, much more than a didactic lecture, and requires proficiency with online technology. We feel that there is a misconception that asynchronous learning detaches the instructor from the student. Using this modality, we have found the opposite. We believe we have been able to effectively reach out to a broader student learner group, rather than only the extrovert who enjoys coming to class and raising a hand. Overall we have observed that the benefits to this innovative asynchronous instructional design benefits both the instructor and student. The instructor gets rich formative feedback on students' taking in content and their teaching (clarity). The student gets highly personalized feedback/communication on their work which is delivered in a timely manner. Instructors and students are therefore able to develop relationships and establish ease of communication early in the curriculum.


Tao Le
University of Louisville

Historically, high-quality health professions education has been expensive to develop and usually limited to selected authors working with publishers in wealthy countries. New digital platforms and the ongoing pandemic has democratized the development of shared open education resources (OER) which evolved to address critical cost and accessibility issues in education globally. UNESCO has identified OER as a priority for accessible, sustainable education and developed guidelines and policies supporting OER development at the country and institutional levels. There are opportunities to empower a global community of health professions educators to collaborate on and freely disseminate OER through shared digital curricular platforms and tools, especially in low-middle income countries (LMICs). We detail shared online medical education efforts in Rwanda, Ethiopia, Vietnam and Columbia. These various initiatives highlight the significant planning and coordination required among multiple like-minded stakeholder groups including medical school consortia, student leadership, NGOs, governmental ministries, foundations and philanthropy.

Roshaneh Ali
John Sealy School of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch

Introduction: A Transition to Residency (TTR) course is designed to facilitate the progression of a fourth-year medical student to an intern. At the John Sealy School of Medicine (JSSOM), the TTR course consists of multiple workshops, lectures, simulations, and inter-professional activities offered by a diverse group of faculty across specialties. Using an application (app), students may select from these sessions and create individualized schedules based on their interests and perceived gaps in knowledge. To meet the dynamic demands of a conference-styled course, we incorporated mobile app-based technology as a novel approach to medical education course design. We present the benefits of coordinating a TTR course using app technology with two years of data.

Methods: From 2021-2022, an average of 229 students enrolled in the TTR course were surveyed using a 4-point Likert scale (1= Strongly Disagree, 4 = Strongly Agree) on the feasibility of app use, the improvement from standard medical school course scheduling, and the ability to promote self-directed learning. Additionally, free response questions asked for positive experiences and for areas of improvement. Answers were analyzed by thematic analysis, where all responses were read and categorized based on the primary theme of the respective comments.

Results: In the first year of study, only one survey question resulted in an average score > 3 (Agree). After adjustments based on student feedback were implemented, the second year of study resulted in all survey questions with an average score of > 3 (Agree). When grouping comments from both years, three major themes were found within both the positive feedback and the constructive criticism categories. Constructive criticism focused on issues with check-in (attendance), the app lacking desired functions, and schedules being locked during the course. However, students in both years gave overall positive feedback related to the app's ease of use, the app's ability to facilitate self-scheduling, and the diversity of scheduling selections.

Conclusion: App technology was successfully integrated to design a course, to allow students to reflect on their own deficiencies, and to enable students to fill gaps in their medical education. The conclusions from the second year of study survey imply that students had an overall positive experience using the app in the TTR course. Additionally, implementation of constructive criticism provided feedback to improve the course. By promoting self-directed learning, we emphasize app technology in medical education course design as congruent with LCME standard 6.3.


Valerie DeLeon
College of Medicine, University of Houston

Educational modalities, technologies, and student learning preferences are changing rapidly in medical education, requiring faculty to adapt or risk losing the engagement of their students. Faculty-student collaborations offer a unique opportunity to create learning experiences that leverage latest technologies and receive high acceptance by students. Anki has become a popular study tool with medical students over the past decade. It is a digital software platform that uses spaced-repetition algorithms and allows users to actively recall concepts with flashcards that contain questions, tables, and diagrams. A common complaint by students, however, is that Anki decks either cover broad areas not specific to a local curriculum or that student-created cards may contain factual errors. Here, we present the design, implementation, and evaluation of course-specific Anki decks that were created by students, vetted by faculty, and integrated into a basic science preclerkship course. We also discuss practical advice on how other medical educators can implement a similar approach in their medical science courses. A total of 93.3 % (26 out of 30) of students reported using the course-provided questions for their studying during the course. Of those, 91.7% (22/24) either "agreed" or "strongly agreed" with the statement that using the question decks was useful for final exam preparation. Of those who used the questions during this course, 79.1% (19/24) either "agreed" or "strongly agreed" with the statement that they would use the similar question decks in future organ-system courses. Student engagement with the course specific Anki decks was very high, reflecting the value that students placed on the expected learning benefits. The majority of students who used the decks found that they helped in their final exam performance and that they would likely use similar decks in the future. This project shows the value of co-creating learning opportunities together with medical students to help select novel technologies and approaches, as well as ensuring high student acceptance and engagement.

Christine Kauffman
University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Many medical schools needed to flip to entirely online instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Will the correlation of attendance to performance change when the attendance is virtual instead of in-person? Research on in-person attendance and performance during pre-clinical basic science courses has mixed results. It generally suggests that in-person attendance does not correlate with performance when all of the materials are available outside the classroom. The second-year (M2) pathophysiology and pharmacology systems modules at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine were entirely on-line for academic year 2020/21. Sessions were divided into either asynchronous, voluntary synchronous or mandatory synchronous. The voluntary synchronous sessions were recorded and available to all students after the sessions were complete. Students in the Class of 2023 were already enrolled in a 3-year longitudinal study on attendance and performance at the time that the pandemic began. Students' (n=83/120) attendance at the voluntary synchronous sessions (in Zoom minutes) was gathered across the entire academic year and correlated with the performance on the final MCQ examination within each course. There was a moderate correlation between in-person attendance during the M1 year and total virtual attendance in the M2 year (rs: = .542, p<0.001). For each of the five M2 modules, there was no significant correlation between voluntary synchronous attendance and performance on the final examinations (p-value ranged 0.098 - 0.732). Attendance, whether in-person or online, does not reliably predict performance on knowledge-based MCQ examinations in pre-clinical medical students. This suggests the need to refocus in-person/synchronous sessions onto competencies other than medical knowledge.

Carolyn "McKenzie" Andrews
State University of New York - Downstate

Introduction: The Brooklyn Free Clinic (BFC) is the student-run free clinic at the State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Health Sciences University College of Medicine. The BFC serves any person 18 years or older who does not have health insurance and does not qualify for public insurance. As a student-run clinic for underserved individuals, the BFC's mission is twofold: first, to deliver the highest standard of care possible to our patients, and second, to provide valuable educational opportunities to our student-volunteers. The goal of this project is to evaluate how well the clinic was able to achieve the second goal in light of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: In order to evaluate how medical students' educational experience at the Brooklyn Free Clinic varied through the pandemic, researchers examined data from student surveys and interviews. Quantitative data was collected from medical student junior volunteer feedback surveys through Google forms that are a part of routine clinic feedback. Survey data of junior volunteers asks about student experience with questions with a scale from 1 to 5. Additional qualitative data was obtained through Zoom interviews with a diverse cohort of BFC student volunteers who had experienced in-person and telehealth shifts during the pandemic.

Results: Based on the JV survey data, the categorical data of the BFC volunteers in the in person and telehealth setting was used to generate bar graphs. The "How would you rate your overall experience with tonight's shift?" defined one as "bad experience" and five as "great experience. A slightly higher percentage of junior student volunteers rated their experience as "great" with the in person volunteering; however, the vast majority in both telehealth and in person rated the BFC as a 4 or a 5. The survey responses and Zoom interviews noted how junior volunteers often felt supported and educated by the senior volunteer students who they are paired with for clinic nights. Early career medical students benefit from the opportunity to learn from more senior students. Some of the downsides of telehealth volunteering that were highlighted in the survey feedback include inability to practice physical exam maneuvers and issues with technology on telehealth visits.

Conclusions: This project aims to evaluate how successfully the clinic was able to deliver care with the telehealth transition and whether or not it impacted medical education. This mixed methods approach found that students noted that they benefited from the educational experience in both in person and telehealth settings; however although there were small differences in the quantitative feedback from each period, the qualitative Zoom interviews found that students largely preferred in person clinical volunteering due to the enhanced educational opportunities in the clinic versus the remote setting.


Shino Kuriakose
New York Institute of Technology

COVID-19 has profoundly affected life worldwide, and it greatly affected physician assistant (PA) education programs when the virus spread across the New York region 2 years ago. PA programs at Stony Brook University, Hofstra University, and the New York Institute of Technology were at the epicenter of the pandemic and were forced to transition to online learning during the spring of 2020. The purpose of this study was to explore didactic PA students' perceptions of virtual learning, their mental health status, and the challenges and unexpected benefits they have faced during this historic time. A consent form that linked to an 11-question electronic Qualtrics survey was emailed to all didactic students enrolled in the 3 participating PA programs. The survey data were used to conduct a descriptive analysis and a Spearman's Ï correlation analysis using SPSS 24 software. The survey response rate was 39% (89/229). The students perceived it to be more challenging to maintain the same level of academic achievement with virtual learning, although they felt they were able to meet learning objectives and be prepared for clinical clerkships. They reported experiencing more significant stress, anxiety, and depression related to decreased socialization and isolation. The students said that their PA program provided enough support to assist with student needs, and they noted unexpected benefits of remote learning, including more time to spend with family members, increased schedule flexibility, and lower commuting costs. The PA students' education and mental health were negatively affected because of the abrupt transition from in-person to virtual learning. At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the students in the 3 participating PA programs in New York were affected by the change to remote learning and the subsequent lack of socialization. PA students experienced both challenges and benefits during this unscheduled virtual learning period. While students noted increases in mental health issues, they felt supported by faculty members and prepared to start clinical rotations.

David Mullins
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College

Objective: Content curation is a necessary skill for success. Traditional teaching approaches have been poorly received, indicating a need for new teaching methods. We have developed a learning activity to enhance the application of content curation, as well as comminication skills, in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

Introduction: Content curation is the process of gathering information pertaining to a topic, then adding value through directed selection, organization, and communication. Content curation is particularly relevant to medical education, where students are exposed to an ever-expanding universe of often-extraneous information, in an environment that increasingly uses self-directed and/or remote learning.

Methods: In a year-one immunology/infectious diseases course, teams of five students were assigned foundational topics (diseases and their causative agents) and tasked to curate information into a single-page patient-oriented infographics that contained validated information on biological characteristics, epidemiology, diagnostics, treatments, and ethical considerations. Students documented their search strategies of primary scientific literature, verified content for accuracy, and cited references. Infographics were subjected to review and presented in a 3-minute "elevator pitch."

Results: The activity exposed students to the variety of information sources and allowed them to develop skills in content curation. Through rubric-based feedback, students assessed their success. Students also developed skills in creating novel communication devices that facilitated rapid and concise communication. All students reported that the activity enhanced their appreciation of content curation as a means of student-directed learning and provided a practical experience in content selection and communication in an enjoyable activity; students also indicated that their knowledge and application of the foundational content was enhanced. We will expand this approach to additional courses and evaluate its impact on the learning and longitudinal application of knowledge. Potential Strengths: 1) Engages student interest and a meta-cognitive appreciation of content curation 2) Encouraging team building and peer-learning 3) Products can be shared as aids for Step-1 Potential Limitations: 1) May require information technology support

Conclusion: In the initial offering, students feedback was unanimously positive. Many students commented that the activity was effective, highly useful, and "fun." We posit that students gained skills in content selection and curation, as well as communication, that will enable better life-long learning.

Feasibility: The learning method can be easily adopted by any institution and for a variety of content areas.

Fatma Alzahraa Elkhamisy
King Salman International University, Faculty of Medicine; & Helwan University, Faculty of Medicine

Turning traditional learning into student-centered has many documented learning advantages including deeper understanding, longer attention span, breakdown of learning boredom, development of the affective domain, training higher-order cognitive functions, higher motivation, better class attendance & engagement, and better academic performance. Didactic lectures are teacher-centered and usually have loads of theoretical scientific information, which hinders students' engagement. Using innovative student-centered approaches in traditional lectures boosts students' motivation, engagement, and learning gains. What the presentation offers: A lightening talk about five feasible tools and strategies that boost students' engagement and turn their learning into a collaborative student-centered one. The tools are attainable to use even in large enrollment classes according to the presenter's experience. Methods to be presented: Memes, Escape rooms, Role plays, Kahoot!, and Learning stations/virtual learning stations. Summary of the instructional tools/strategies: 1. Memes: Humorous pictures that can be used in either way: memes on scientific material are selected & displayed by the instructor for students teams to reflect on collaboratively. Or by asking students to design some memes reflecting on the scientific material they studied. 2. Escape Rooms: This can be face-to-face or online, using part of or the whole lecture session. The basic idea is like the escape room game. Students are asked to find and solve a certain number of hidden clues asking about scientific material, to be able to get out of the room (face-to-face or virtual) class. It mixes work (studying) with fun & is a form of game-based learning. 3. Role plays: a doctor-patient role-play done by the instructor and students or student/student in the lecture context, just after teaching the topic and asking students to guess the disease/reflect on the case. It can also be used in a flipped classroom context. 4. Kahoot! game-based quiz platform: A digital platform that enables the instructor to create challenging game-based quizzes for students and play them synchronously to determine who are the champions of this challenge. Can be used in class or in distance learning. 5. Learning stations: Transforming the traditional lecture into multiple stations that students should pass on, consecutively and work in teams. Each station has part of the learning material of the lecture and a task to apply. Stations are complementary to each other; by finishing them, students have completed the lecture. It is a student-centered strategy. Effect on students' learning: Enhanced students' satisfaction and engagement with their learning, and better academic performance.