Poster Presentation Abstracts

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Fundamentals of TBL

101- How Does TBL Address the Challenges of the First-Year Teacher Experience?

John Chapman, Brigham Young University - Idaho

"First-year teachers are in a unique career and pedagogical position.  Frequently, first-year teachers take material or content from previous years and because of a lack of time, or resources designs a course that is very similar to previous versions of the course.
Some of the challenges first-year teachers face include curriculum design, learning objective or course outcome design, perceived lack of content knowledge (by themselves or others, including students), assessment design, and a lack of knowledge about learners' common misperceptions or hurdles.
How can TBL help?
This presentation hopes to connect the ways TBL can offer teachers a better start to their teaching and pedagogical designs.  This presentation hopes to address some or all of the following questions:

  • How does a first-year teacher start to implement TBL
  • What parts of the TBL approach are more important to implement sooner than later?
  • Is it even worth trying to do backward design as a first-year teacher?
  • What factors are most important when making content design decisions?

Innovations of TBL

205 - Use of TBL Pedagogy in Teaching Principles of Metabolism to First-Year Medical Students

Sarah Evans, Kansas College of Osteopathic Medicine
Stacy Jones, Kansas College of Osteopathic Medicine
Nicholas J. Wohlgemuth, Kansas College of Osteopathic Medicine

Biomedical science faculty of a new osteopathic medical school were tasked with developing a 2 session Team-Based Learning (TBL) series with a total of 5 hours of class time to review general biochemical metabolic pathways for first-year medical students, establishing a baseline of biochemistry knowledge prior to moving into systems modules.  Student background in concepts of metabolism was varied, and faculty new to teaching in the TBL format were concerned that the vast amount of information needed to understand metabolism could not be addressed with such limited time constraints.  Metabolic pathways were divided into two TBL sessions, one on carbohydrate metabolism and one on lipid, amino acid, nucleotide metabolism, including time for overview and integration.  Prereading included PowerPoint slides, ScholarRX bricks, and textbook material, with tables for students to help focus their attention on the most important concepts.  Ninety-one students took the IRAT, then worked in groups of 6-8 for the TRAT.  Test questions were discussed as a class, followed by case studies in which each student group worked together to apply metabolic information to clinical cases.

Students were assessed individually by examination on their understanding and ability to apply concepts from both TBL sessions, and a survey was conducted to gather student feedback on confidence in their understanding and ability to apply the information.  TRAT scores showed an average increase of 26.3% compared to the IRAT.  Self-reported data from student surveys showed that students believed their understanding of the information increased by 44.4% and their confidence in their ability to apply the information increased by 39.6%.  The average score on the exam, assessing information from both TBL sessions, was 80%.  Faculty believe that the series was effective in helping students to establish a baseline understanding of general metabolism.

206 - Development and Evaluation of an Introduction to Medicine Short Course for First-Year Medical Students Using Team-Based Learning

Stacy Jones, Kansas College of Osteopathic Medicine
Sarah Evans, Kansas College of Osteopathic Medicine
Nicholas J. Wohlgemuth, Kansas College of Osteopathic Medicine

The primary objective was to create a de novo foundational, 8-week, biomedical science course at a new osteopathic medical school for first-year medical students with a wide variety of educational backgrounds and experiences. The new curriculum was designed to ensure baseline foundational biomedical science using Team-Based Learning (TBL) pedagogy, combining multiple disciplines, and incorporating information into a clinical context. Integration of biomedical science concepts and disciplines was a key approach to maximizing the amount of material that could be addressed in a limited amount of time. Over 100 basic science topics were identified in a faculty survey as possibilities for inclusion in the curriculum. These topics were organized into themes, such as biochemistry of biomolecules, cellular membranes and transport, cell signaling, and carbohydrate metabolism. TBL was used in 16 out of 24 class sessions, which enhanced the integration of multiple basic science concepts, disciplines, and clinical contexts. For example, lipid biology was intertwined with the biomolecule structure and function, membrane transport, metabolism, and cell signaling sessions. Additional integration incorporated the key basic science disciplines and corresponding clinical applications.

According to student surveys given after the course, confidence increased in understanding the essential basic science concepts and their ability to apply them in clinical applications. TBL pedagogy was an effective and efficient educational tool to teach and build student confidence in learning foundational basic science knowledge and applying clinical applications. TBL enhanced the learning process of first-year medical students, allowing for the vast coverage of sufficient content to meet future coursework demands.

207 - Significant Activities for Philosophy TBL

Russell Marcus, Hamilton College

TBL activities are supposed to be significant. Significance can differ by discipline or course goal. Significance in philosophy involves tasks at higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy, avoiding activities that focus mainly on recall, and seeking tasks that ask students to apply or evaluate theories. Activities should lead to disagreement so that teams work through various options.
Operationalizing these principles can be challenging. In a standard philosophy course (e.g. Early Modern Philosophy), students must learn how to use basic vocabulary. Activities may be significant because they ask students to work with new concepts. Differences of opinion will come largely from unfamiliarity with the material, as when an activity asks students to classify claims as a priori or empirical. Student results are likely to converge to a standard response. A class filled with such activities is likely to be tiresome since the real fun and learning of philosophy emerges with higher-level tasks.

For higher-level significant tasks in philosophy, there are likely to be contrasting, equally well justified views. For example, students might be asked to rank the strength of various responses to an argument. Student results in such cases are less likely to converge, and even less likely to converge for good reasons. While some convergent activities can help students learn to use basic concepts, engagement in divergent tasks is typically higher.

The contrast between convergent and divergent tasks is more pronounced in formal logic. As in many STEM fields, typical activities have clearly right and wrong answers. Significance may best be created by assigning difficult examples, since responses should converge. But too many convergent activities can be tiresome and reify student differences. Divergent activities in logic can improve diverse engagement and enjoyment even in a class focused on material with clear answers. I will share specific examples.

209 - Enhancing Student Nurses' Engagement and Learning of Applied Pathophysiology with TBL

Ryan Muldoon, Bournemouth University
Jonathan Branney, Bournemouth University

To promote learning and classroom engagement a 6-week applied pathophysiology unit (module) was transitioned from traditional teaching (with some flipped classroom) to entirely Team-based Learning (TBL). The unit was transitioned to TBL by a team of nine nurse academics, one of whom was certified TBL Consultant-Trainer. Three of the team had never used TBL before while the other six had some experience delivering a short TBL seminar. The TBL version of the unit was delivered to year 2 BSc (Hons) student nurses (n=289) in academic year 21-22. Student evaluation data, virtual learning environment (VLE) analytics, and exam performance were compared with that of students (n=265) who studied the predecessor applied pathophysiology unit the previous year. Responses for five of the eight 5-item Likert scale questions on the institutional student survey favored the TBL unit, with 76% - 94% of students 'definitely' or 'mostly' agreeing that they worked hard, could explore concepts in-depth, that staff gave good explanations and made the subject interesting, they could contact staff, understood assessment criteria, and felt part of a learning community. The lowest result for the TBL unit was where only 64% of students indicated they had received helpful feedback, however that represented a 20% increase from the previous year. For the traditional unit students spent on average 51 hours 31 minutes engaging with online learning materials compared to 77 hours 37 minutes with the TBL unit. The mean (SD) exam score for the exam after the TBL unit was 68% (14) versus 56% (16), and the fail rate was 1% versus 17%, compared to the traditionally taught applied pathophysiology unit. Students more highly evaluated the TBL version of the applied pathophysiology unit, had greater engagement with online learning materials outside of class, and demonstrated improved exam performance compared to the predecessor traditionally taught unit.

211 - TBL with Sports Coaches: Game On

Carol Schoenecker, Duquesne University
Cortny Williams, University of Western States
Liz Winter, Liz Winter & Associates

TBL was used to deliver a three-part professional development series to NCAA Division I, II, and III rowing coaches in the Collegiate Rowing Coaches Association on trauma-informed coaching. College athletes experience mental health problems more than other students; many athletes report frequent mental exhaustion. The series goal was to help coaches support athlete well-being while maximizing athletic performance.

The authors developed materials using backwards design. Common problems experienced by rowing coaches in highly competitive programs were used to develop application activities. Preparation phase materials consisted of recorded video presentations addressing stress, emotional intelligence and psychological safety; Readiness Assurance Tests were then developed and a questionnaire eliciting information on coaching experience and trauma-informed education was administered. 

The pre-series questionnaire was completed by coaches to inform team selection. Videos were accessible online and the remaining phases were delivered remotely using video conferencing. Finally, coaches completed a survey of their experiences and learning from the series; a peer evaluation was not included. Google Workspace was used to prepare and house materials.  

Post-series survey results showed that equipping coaches with the language, background knowledge of the biopsychosocial perspective, and how to address personal and athlete stress responses has made a significant impact on how they approach their profession. Several coaches contacted authors for consultation about adapting programs to facilitate greater athlete well-being. 

TBL is well-positioned for use in professional development for sports coaches. In addition to the known instructional benefits of TBL, the teaming component mirrors team processes in sports. Coaches move between being in their familiar role as an authority figure and experience team support as they work through a participatory problem-solving model.

Research & Scholarship

301 - Effects of Self-Reflection on the Perceived Value of Peer Feedback in a Course Using Team-Based Learning

Jennifer M. Fisher, Harding University

Collaborative practice is now a service delivery method considered best practice and essential in the global health systems. In preparation for the allied health field's collaborative nature, allied health practitioners need to be equipped with critical thinking skills and synthesize constructive feedback and new information. In addition, soft skills are rated as one of the essential employability characteristics sought after in the professional sector. Becoming proficient in providing and receiving peer feedback can improve soft skills such as communication, collaboration, and adaptability. Self-reflection is a skill that is valued across professions. Learners with high self-regulation levels use self-assessment and reflection to independently direct their learning by modifying learning strategies for better outcomes. Despite the requirement of teaching and measuring soft skills in allied health, little research is available to direct best practices and protocols in teaching, measuring, and documenting these skills.

The purpose of this study was to research factors that contribute to an understanding of the effect that self-reflection has on a student's valuation and confidence in peer feedback and how the type of learner affects those same factors. Self-regulated learning served as the theoretical framework, and the sample for this experimental design was graduate physical therapy and speech-language pathology students.

No significant interaction between type of learner and participation in a guided self-reflection protocol on participants' valuation and belief in the peer feedback process existed for any of the four hypotheses. There was a significant main effect of type of learner on confidence in own feedback and with participation in the guided self-reflection on the confidence in the quality of received peer feedback. Results may assist instructors in the allied health fields with deciding on peer feedback protocol and give validity to teaching soft skills such as self-reflection.

302 - SARS-CoV-2 Variants and COVID-19: A Team-Based Learning Module for Medical Students

Daniel Griffin, Nova Southeastern University
Amanda Chase, Nova Southeastern University
Samiksha Prasad, Nova Southeastern University

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants posed an increased risk to global public health perspective and prompted the characterization of variants of concern. Health professionals play a central role in patient education and providing vaccine guidance. Medical students benefit from understanding the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants in a team-based learning (TBL) setting, where they can apply foundational concepts in epidemiology to clinical problems.

This TBL focused on the SARS-CoV-2 variants and the mechanisms through which they emerge, was developed in response to the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and monitoring of viral variants. This activity was placed at the end of the years 2021 and 2022 within the first semester of the first year of medical school students. The TBL consisted of a seven-question individual and team readiness assurance test (iRAT and tRAT) and four team application activities. Additionally, students completed an 18-item pre/post-questionnaire that collected information on student perspectives and knowledge of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The iRAT average score (n=104) in the inaugural delivery for this TBL was 58.8% and the tRAT average score was 85.9%. Data analysis showed an increase in knowledge and understanding of the COVID-19 and its variants post-session. 96% of the participants agreed that they are "confident in their understanding of the material discussed during the session€. Open-ended responses yielded positive feedback about the session, with several students pointing out that the session helped them in their ability to interpret phylogenetic trees and understanding of the variants of concern.

This TBL module effectively integrates the foundational sciences and allows medical students to apply higher-order concepts in virology and epidemiology. More specifically, this TBL presented an opportunity to develop an up-to-date platform for discussion of novel and circulating variants of COVID-19 in a framework that can be revised each year.

303 - All for One: Group-added Value in Team-based Learning Readiness Testing

Pete Clapp, Regis School of Pharmacy
Mikayla Donlon, Regis School of Pharmacy

Utilization of Team-based Learning (TBL) is becoming increasingly common in schools of pharmacy. The development of team cohesiveness is vitally important to the success of a team during contextually relevant and consequential problem-solving tasks. TBL is associated with increased engagement and acquisition of knowledge; skills that are heavily relied upon in contemporary healthcare. Using existing assessments in TBL, comparisons can be made over time of student teams' ability to solve problems in a thoughtful, cooperative manner.

In the current study, the extent to which increased experience with structured group activities will affect the quality of group interactions and team performance is assessed using readiness assurance tests (RATs). First-year pharmacy students completed 10 multiple-choice RATs over 8 weeks in an integrated pharmacotherapy course.  Individual and team scores were used to calculate measures of team performance and compared with student perceptions on their problem-solving processes. Team RAT items (n=135) were evaluated to determine if the answer choice matched or diverged from the majority decision.

On average, teams scored higher on RATs than the individual class mean by 13 ± 0.4 percent. At 4 weeks, incorrect team decisions on RATs tended to match the majority opinion (68% frequency). Student perception at this timepoint was consistent with actual RAT results (62%). At 8 weeks, incorrect team decisions on RATs matched the majority opinion (77% frequency). Student perception at 8 weeks was less consistent with actual results (49%).

At an early stage of exposure to TBL structured didactic coursework, teams have an accurate perception of their problem-solving processes and tend to agree with the internal majority. Additional observations will be needed to determine if student perceptions and/or decision-making processes change with time.

304 - Comparison of Virtual Versus In-Person Delivery of a Naloxone Certification Training Program Through the Use of Team-Based Learning

Jennifer Courtney, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy
Eugene Kreys, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy
Tiffany-Jade Kreys, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy
Bryan Luu, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy
Erika Titus-Lay, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy
Ruth Vinall, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy

California Northstate University College of Pharmacy was one of the first pharmacy schools in the nation to implement TBL pedagogy throughout the didactic curriculum. Amid the pandemic, CNUCOP was required to transition to virtual delivery of our curriculum, while maintaining our TBL pedagogy.

The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine if a difference in the effectiveness of naloxone training exists when delivered virtually versus in-person using TBL and (2) to identify areas of improvement for virtual or in-person delivery of training.

A naloxone furnishing certificate program was developed and implemented into the second year (P2) of our pharmacy program. Two different P2 cohorts were surveyed and assessed. Training was delivered virtually in 2020 and in-person in 2021.
Baseline characteristics and demographics were compared between 2020 and 2021 using the Chi-square test. Improvement in performance before and after the class session and after assessments were compared using the independent sample t-test. Differences in survey results were compared using the Mann-Whitney-U test. Cronbach's Alpha Reliability Test was used to measure the internal consistency of the survey questions.

No major differences between 2020 and 2021 baseline characteristics and demographics were identified. Increases in scores from pre-teaching to post-teaching (p>0.001) and post-assessment (p>0.001) were significant in 2021. Increases in scores from post-teaching and post-assessment were similar in both 2020 and 2021 (p=0.648). Only two of the familiarity/comfort survey questions were not significantly different between the cohorts. Internal consistency was excellent (alpha>0.9) for the survey questions, implying strong validity of the survey in general.

Although a significant increase in scores in the in-person training delivery was observed, the comfortability of the students for furnishing naloxone to patients was similar in both cohorts. This may still translate to having naloxone be furnished when pharmacists are trained virtually or in-person.

305 - Transforming Lower Division Mathematics Through Team-Based Inquiry Learning: A Model for Training Faculty, Developing Resources, and Measuring Impact

Julie Estis, University of South Alabama
Raj Chaudhury, University of South Alabama
Steven Clontz, University of South Alabama
Drew Lewis, University of South Alabama
Christopher Parrish, University of South Alabama

Team-Based Inquiry Learning (TBIL) implements Inquiry-Based Learning, which focuses on making real-world connections through exploration and high-level questioning, under the framework of Team-Based Learning (TBL).  Our preliminary research showed that compared to lectures, class, TBIL improves students' mastery of content and increases their flexibility in solving problems in university mathematics courses. This multi-year project aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of Team-Based Inquiry Learning (TBIL) in Calculus 1, Calculus 2, and Linear Algebra across various instructional contexts. As access to high-quality inquiry materials is a key barrier to implementation, the project is developing a freely available library of TBIL course materials.

The project is focused on the following research questions: 1) To what extent does Team-Based Inquiry Learning improve students' content mastery and procedural fluency across instructional contexts; 2)  Which of the supports provided to faculty led to a successful implementation of TBIL in various instructional contexts?; 3) How faithfully do faculty implement TBIL after participating in the TBIL summer institutes?

To date, a TBIL resource library with a complete set of course materials (preparation materials, readiness assurance tests, application activities, assessments) for Calculus 1, Calculus 2, and Linear Algebra.  Thirty-one faculty have been engaged in the project so far. Participants are trained in TBIL and implementing it in their courses, and a subset of participants authored materials in the TBIL resource library. Data collection is ongoing.

This presentation will focus on the multidimensional aspects of the project that apply to a broad audience across a wide variety of backgrounds interested in TBL, such as faculty development, collaborative development of instructional resources, and measuring student learning and impressions. Research outcomes from faculty participants and their students will be presented.

306 - Perceptions on Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Competencies in Online Team-Based Active Learning at the Master's Level

Michelle Demory Beckler, Nova Southeastern University
Joshua M. Costin, Nova Southeastern University
Arlene M. Giczkowski, Nova Southeastern University
Robert C. Rust, West Chester University

In-person active learning has been well studied at the undergraduate and medical school levels. Online-only delivery of master's programs has gained popularity, particularly due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, little is known about the effectiveness of active learning delivered online. We sought to understand the effectiveness and impact of team-based learning (TBL) sessions on intra- and interprofessional competencies at the master's level. We redesigned our Microbiology & Immunology course to investigate competencies that contribute to success in an online TBL environment.

Our master's program is designed to enhance a student's academic profile for successful matriculation into health professions programs. Accordingly, the curriculum mimics the first year of medical and dental school. Our re-designed Microbiology & Immunology course was delivered in three blocks: Immunology, Virology and Bacteriology. Each block contained ~10 didactic lecture hours followed by three TBL hours, which were recorded. On the first and last day of class, students were provided surveys that asked demographic information as well as intra- and interprofessional skills perceptions. The responses were validated using a mixed- methods approach by: 1) observing and recording individual and group behaviors while engaged in TBL, 2) recording success in answering the iRAT/tRAT and tAPP questions posed within TBL, and 3) recording success on examination questions based on learning objectives from TBL.

We present data showing trends across the semester, with increased intra- and inter-professional skills as more TBL sessions were delivered. We also show that the type and quantity of responses correlate positively with correct answers to questions based on the lecture objectives for the TBLs and overall high exam scores.

As a result of this study, inclusion of TBL within the Microbiology & Immunology course will be standard practice and its design will be used as a model for other courses in our master's program.

307 - Team-Based Learning as a Strategy to Improve Students' Feelings of Social Connectedness and Mental Health

Jennie Brown, Franklin Pierce University
Brandon Cross, Franklin Pierce University
Reece Diener, Franklin Pierce University
Brianna Kelley, Franklin Pierce University
Aliyah Sonnier, Franklin Pierce University

Students' poor mental health has become significantly worse since the pandemic, and this is of great concern to education administrators and faculty. Poor mental health is linked to delayed academic success, difficulty studying, problems completing academic work, and increased attrition. However, faculty may be able to offer students a mental health boost through the types of pedagogy they employ in the classroom. The use of Team-based Learning (TBL) is associated with a variety of positive learning outcomes such as increased motivation and accountability, increased performance, and the development of teamwork skills. Moreover, TBL is more evolutionary relevant - that is the TBL process is more consistent with the way our ancestors approached education - learning is social, students learn from their peers, students learn using real-world problems, learning can seem more like a game (teams competing against each other) and cooperative (teammates help each other). Because TBL is more consistent evolutionarily, it may also benefit students' feelings of connectedness to others and their mental health.

In this research, students in a TBL undergraduate statistics class were compared to students learning in non-TBL classes. All students will complete the Mental Health Continuum Short Form and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Additionally, students will respond to a series of items to gauge how connected they felt to their classmates (e.g., I have classmates who are my friends. I feel connected to my classmate. My classmates miss me when I am absent.).

Data collection is currently in process.