Poster Topic: Curriculum

To view the posters, click the image under the abstract

201 - Stop the Bleed and Start Working with Interprofessional Health Students

Amy Stickford Becker
UW Madison School of Medicine and Public Health
Interprofessional education and preparedness are hot topics in health professional education. We implemented the Stop the Bleed program as an interprofessional and preparedness activity for early health professional learners. During the activity, students:

Were introduced to the roles and responsibilities, perspectives, values and expertise of one another
Identified knowledge, skills and abilities that they bring to an emergency
Learned skills to help control bleeding in emergencies

Stop the Bleed is a national campaign to train, equip, and empower citizens to help in a traumatic bleeding emergency. In 2019, we implemented the campaign with 284 first year medical, physician assistant, public health, genetic counseling and physical therapy students during a 90-minute session. Students were assigned to an interprofessional team of 8-10 students/table in two adjacent rooms. Forty volunteer physician assistants, nurses, community EMTs, residents, and physicians co-facilitated. Students participated in an introductory activity exploring the roles and expertise of each health professional group member; the Stop the Bleed curriculum, which includes learning to apply direct pressure, packing wounds and applying tourniquets; and then a debrief discussion.

219 out of 284 students (77% response rate) completed a 9-question evaluation survey at the end of the session. Participants indicated the session was highly successful in achieving the intended outcomes; with 99% somewhat or strongly agreeing that they were satisfied with the session, 97% somewhat or strongly agreeing that the session was relevant to their area of study, and 85% somewhat or strongly agreeing that they benefitted from the interprofessional nature of the activity. Several students have become future facilitators for the Stop the Bleed campaign.

Implementing the Stop the Bleed curriculum as an interprofessional activity is an effective approach to teach team roles, responsibilities and value of team members as well as patient care skills and public health knowledge for emergency preparedness. For future iterations we will expand upon the interprofessional pieces of the activity.

202 - Thinking Outside The Square In Cultivating Interprofessional Professionalism In Optometry

Kwang Meng Cham
The University of Melbourne
Kwang Meng Cham1, Heather Gaunt1
1University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Scholarship on teaching professionalism is limited in Optometry. There is no existing research focusing on the key conceptual content for an optometric curriculum. This project aims to provide inter-disciplinary learning and engagement for students in Optometry, Arts Management/Curatorship and Animation. Focused on the physical environment of the Grainger Museum, students experienced object-based learning opportunities in group contexts, designed to promote personal and professional learning and reflection in the areas of ethical dilemmas, communication and collaboration across different disciplines.

Optometry students experienced activities that focused on ethical dilemmas, including dealing with present or future ‘moral distress’ in health professional contexts. Arts Management/Curatorship students provided insights and ways of connecting to the selected objects, and Animation students assisted in the video production.

Together, 84% of the students (n=70, 100% response rate) reported that this task increased their understanding and awareness in professionalism and heath ethics. 86% believed that their communication and interpersonal skills will improve after this activity. 89% found group work more enjoyable compared to previous experiences.

The project has enhanced students’ awareness in professionalism and ethical dilemmas. All students have an increased understanding and awareness of professionalism, teamwork, communication and collaboration across different professions and perspectives. This project has provided specific supported learning opportunities for students across disciplines to engage in unique ways. It has encouraged them to consider and appreciate the perspectives and skills of students from other disciplines, and how to communicate and work effectively in team-based settings.

203 - Leadership For Medical Students Curriculum Development Using Design Thinking And Student Co-creator

Alexa Lisevick
Frank H Netter MD School of Medicine
PURPOSE: Two faculty members and one second year medical student co-created a pilot leadership curriculum based on the principle that all physicians are leaders; our end goal was to empower medical students to lead themselves, teams, and impact systems.
METHODS: Utilizing student-driven needs assessment and curriculum design, the 16-week leadership course was uniquely developed to be centered on emotional intelligence and psychological safety. Eight pre-clinical medical students met weekly for 2-3-hour long sessions throughout the semester for a total of 13 small group in-person sessions. Weekly session effectiveness surveys enabled rapid quality improvement in satisfaction and engagement. Students self-assessed their confidence to perform in multiple competencies using a 5-point Likert scale (1= Strongly Disagree, 2= Disagree, 3= Neutral, 4= Agree, 5= Strongly Agree) within the 3 leadership domains (self, team, system) both prior to and at course conclusion; paired t-tests compared individual student’s pre- and post-course responses. Qualitative closing reflections and student-led focus groups captured students’ ability to apply what they learned to activities outside the course.
RESULTS: Pre- versus post- course, student self-evaluations demonstrated significantly improved confidence levels in competencies across all leadership domains: self, 3.61 to 4.39 (p =.001); team, 3.34 to 4.22 (p

204 - A culinary medicine elective course incorporating lifestyle medicine for medical students

Kelsey Scherer
West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe our culinary medicine elective course with a lifestyle modification focus and to evaluate the students’ perceived knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy in lifestyle medicine.
Methods: Pre- and post-surveys including quantitative assessment, Likert-type questions, and one open-ended response question to assess students’ perceived knowledge of nutrition and lifestyle medicine were distributed to osteopathic medical students who participated in the culinary medicine elective course. The Mann-Whitney U test and dependent t test were used where appropriate based on normality.
Results: Compared to the pre-course survey, students who responded “Strongly agree” in questions related to medical nutrition therapy in the post-course survey were 26.5 to 31.3 % higher (p < 0.05). Based on the post course survey (n = 34), 33 students responded either “Strongly agree” (n = 25, 73.5%) or “agree” (n = 8, 23.5%) to the question of “increased my knowledge of nutrition”.
Conclusions: Culinary medicine course with a lifestyle medicine focus may be effective in increasing medical students’ confidence and perceived knowledge of nutrition and lifestyle medicine.

205 - Original Research based Curriculum in a Physician Assistant Program

Shinu Kuriakose
New York Institute of Technology
Original Research-based Curriculum in a Physician Assistant Program

Physician Assistant (PA) students in the New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) program in New York, USA made a transition in their Research I-IV classes, over 4 semesters, to an original project-based deliverable regarding a topic that interested the students. The goal of this project was that after this original research study, the students could submit their work to a peer-reviewed journal after feedback from their faculty mentor. The majority of Physician Assistant programs in the country engage in a research project that is primarily literature review based. This experience familiarizes the NYT PA students with research protocols and processes.
The students in groups of 4 decide on a topic they are interested in and must then submit relevant research articles, already published, in that domain as a guide. This 1st research class culminates in a PowerPoint™ presentation and a proposal paper which are both graded. The students then fill out the IRB application, mentored by a faculty member in the PA program, answer questions describing their research process, submit the survey methodology, and await approval before starting their research. Once data is obtained, the focus is on data analysis, appropriate use of statistical software utilizing SPSS, exploring correlation, and causation. The final part is incorporating this study in a publishable format. Throughout the Research II-IV process, the students are supervised closely by their assigned faculty mentor in the Department of PA studies.
As this process is one year old, the conclusions of the project are still being awaited. Student feedback has been positive so far as this expose’s students to the manner a real publishable research process is conducted, and this awareness will help them moving forward. There is also increased interest from the faculty perspective, as faculty often choose projects which mutually is beneficial for them and the students. It is the hope that the students become published authors within 6 months of their graduation and help them to move forward with clinical studies.

206 - Effective Process Applied To New Course Development

Mari Hopper
Sam Houston State University College of Osteopathic Medicine
PURPOSE: With a recognized shortage of physicians, there has been impetus for development of new medical schools. Additionally, existing medical schools work to “refresh” curricula to align with adult learning theory and active engagement of students. Subsequently, faculty are called to generate new courses despite lack of training. To assist faculty at a new medical school, a process was developed and visual organizer created to guide faculty through new course development.

METHODS: Process for course development included three phases. 1) Course Director Preparation: course directors gathered materials including COMLEX-USA Blueprints, NBME content guides and reference textbooks, outlined course framework, topics, disciplines, number of sessions, course calendar, and identified membership for course development team. 2) Course Team Collaboration: Interdisciplinary teams conducted “huddle” meetings to sort topics into sequence, write and map objectives, determine course delivery methods, establish policies and grading, and establish syllabi elements. 3) Individual Faculty Authoring: Course directors invited discipline specific faculty to develop and deliver course sessions. Faculty wrote session objectives, developed deliverables, wrote exam items, submitted session mapping, and solicited peer evaluation. With staff assistance, the course director accepted, reviewed and prepared all materials for upload to the course management system, submitted textbook and room requests, and other tasks. A single paged visual illustration of the process was developed and distributed to all faculty.

Faculty report having the process for new course development available as a visual organizer improves efficiency and effectiveness as it directs efforts of interdisciplinary teams and allows quick onboarding of team members.

Once the process for development of new courses was established, generating a visual organizer was an effective method of guiding faculty through the process. The process and organizer could easily be adapted for use in curricular development in a variety of medical and other health related programs.

207 - Diet Quality Among First-Year Osteopathic Medical Students

Sarah Holzmann
California Health Sciences University College of Osteopathic Medicine
IAMSE Abstract
Diet Quality Among Preclinical Osteopathic Medical Students

Sarah Holzmann, Sara Goldgraben, Emily A. Johnston
California Health Sciences University College of Osteopathic Medicine

Nutrition is inconsistently taught in the training of medical students. We are integrating nutrition into a systems-based curriculum at a college of osteopathic medicine and teaching culinary medicine classes relevant to each system. We seek to measure the effects of this training on personal dietary choices.
First year osteopathic medical students took an online 160-item validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a part of their designated nutrition content. They were provided with a link and a username and password and received a report with a Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 score which measures adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and is scored out of 100 upon completion. The report also included shortfall nutrients and foods to increase intake of to help them meet nutrient goals. These reports were integrated into the subsequent nutrition content with instructions on how to interpret the reports and how their dietary intake compared to the guidelines they were learning.
All (n=80) first year osteopathic medical students took part in the initial dietary assessment. The sample was 48% female with a mean age was 26 years of age (range: 21-42 years of age). The mean BMI was 24.6 kg/m2 (healthy weight) and they reported low-moderate levels of physical activity. Overall HEI-2015 score was 67.3 (43.8-89.6) out of 100. Average sodium intake was 4,030 mg and fiber intake was 23.8 g per day.
Medical student HEI-2015 score was higher than the national average, but sodium intake exceeds and fiber intake falls short of evidence-based guidelines. Comparing these data to a second administration of this FFQ at the end of the year will aide us in answering the question of whether an integrated nutrition curriculum, including hands-on culinary medicine classes, improves overall diet quality, measured by HEI-2015 score, among first year osteopathic medical students.

208 - The Influence of Institutional Trust on the Academic Decisions of Medical Students

Promise Bood
University of New Mexico School of Medicine
Research regarding medical students’ trust in their institution and willingness to follow the presented curriculum is currently lacking. Yet, the trust dynamics between students, their instructors and institution, may offer insight into the academic performance and overall clinical confidence of future physicians.
An initial survey, distributed to pre-clinical medical students, was designed to gauge their trust in relation to board exam preparation and their curriculum, as well as the institution. Survey analysis prompted an exploration into several themes related to trust, that were then discussed in a focus group setting. Two classes of pre-clinical medical students have participated in the survey and focus group analysis.
Of the 101 survey responses, 49% of respondents indicated they were ‘neutral’ that the school was “adequately preparing [students] for STEP 1”. Focus group discussions exposed strengths in the curriculum including ‘instructor reliability’ and ‘organization’. These discussions also resulted in recommendations for interventions, including ‘faculty acknowledgment of STEP 1’ and ‘consistency’ in instruction methods in order to support a comfortable and trustworthy learning environment.
Based on available data, students perceive there to be a lack of harmony between the curriculum, as presented, and future board exams. Our initial recommendation is to have board pertinent information clearly outlined within the curriculum, while also emphasizing that certain topics may hold greater clinical importance. This research could provide invaluable information to medical educators concerning students’ perception of best practices when creating and presenting material to optimize student reception and engagement with the curriculum. Our intent is to perform more data collecting cycles for each class as they progress through the medical curriculum.

209 - Research Mentorship in Medical Education

Alberto Musto
Eastern Virginia Medical School
Alberto E. Musto1, Natascha Heise1, Jessica Bergden1, Lane Forney1, Matt Myers1 and Richard Gonzalez1
1Department of Anatomy and Pathology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23501 USA
The utilization of medical imaging benefits medical students by enhancing their learning and understanding of anatomy and ability to interpret clinical cases through radiologic studies. Medical imaging sessions were integrated as a major component of the human anatomy experience within the first year human anatomy at Eastern Virginia Medical School.
Integration of medical imaging consisted of: a) recorded lectures using different medical imaging modalities to cover each anatomical region; b) worksheets using a clinical case to practice content from lectures; c) weekly small group sessions during anatomy laboratory supported by multimedia devices, where different medical imaging modalities were discussed using normal and pathological cases. In addition, iPad were used to retrieve medical imaging material during the cadaver dissection case presentation. Assessments were conducted using formative quizzes and summative examinations. Students’ perceptions were analyzed using Likert’s scale at the end of the module.
Overall, every students (n = 150) passed the module. The Likert scale mean in terms of achieving the stated learning objectives was 4.51; the clarity of presentation(s) by this instructor was 4.37; the degree to which this instructor promoted active participation was 4.67. The students recognized and appreciated the instruction especially concepts and big picture from lectures and worksheets, the guidance to read images, engagement and active participation, and small group critical thinking opportunities. In addition, the sessions contributed to their understanding of gross anatomy clinical correlates. This instruction ultimately helped them on examinations and anatomy material overall.

This instruction positively impacted the overall students’ evaluation. Basic concepts of medical imaging through human anatomy and its relevant clinical application are feasible, effective and useful for students. Strong expertise in the field and faculty teamwork strengthens educational outcomes. Continued medical imaging integration with other components of the medical curricula need to be evaluated in future studies.

210 - Discovery Learning Program: Providing Global And Local Learning Opportunities To First Year Medical Students

Olivia Coiado
Carle Illinois College of Medicine
The Carle Illinois College of Medicine curriculum integrates basic and clinical sciences with engineering. At the end of the first year, students have an opportunity to engage in a clinical, research or global immersion through the Discovery Learning Program. The Discovery Learning course is up to 6-week elective designed to provide students with valuable qualitative and affective learning experiences, enhance their curiosity and creativity applying the inquiry-based learning approach, develop technical competency and foster strong bonds of friendship and camaraderie among students and faculty.

The course is divided in four categories: clinical, research, electives, and global immersion. Students can receive up to 6-credits after completion of the course. A total of 28 students with 35 projects were enrolled in the course during Summer of 2020: 16 students completed the research immersion, 8 students completed clinical immersion and 11 students completed electives. Students completed projects under supervision of a mentor: a clinical or a researcher faculty.
Some of the immersions include case report about challenges of diagnosing acute histoplasmosis and a rare case of eccrine porocarcinoma with metastic spread, research about cardiac pacing using ultrasonic pulses, data analysis, grant and manuscript writing and electives focused on COVID-19 literature review and a Medical Spanish course. After the immersion students presented their experiences in a Pecha Kucha (storytelling format) event.

The main outcomes of the Discovery Learning Program were: 1) medical students reported they had a valuable qualitative learning experience which encouraged their deep thinking about the interaction between medical/engineering and its environment, 2) the experience exposed students to cultures and ways of life of a diverse groups of people, 3) students were very satisfied with the program. Students appreciated the professional experience and the possibility of the immersion in different environments to better understand health care problems.

211 - Building Students' Cultural Competency Through a Medical Spanish Program with Service Learning and Community Engagement Components

Kristen Dodenhoff
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Forty-one percent of Hispanics in the United States have limited English proficiency (LEP)(1). Language discordance results in poor patient-clinician communication and disparities in healthcare(2). Medical Spanish education seeks to address health disparities by improving medical students' patient-centered communication skills in Spanish. This study assessed the effect of the preclinical portion of a longitudinal medical Spanish certificate program (MAESTRO) on student beliefs that could impact their interactions with patients with LEP.
Nine students enrolled in the program’s first cohort. The curriculum included workshops, standardized patient interactions, technology-based learning, community service, and an optional community engagement opportunity. Eight students completed the preclinical portion of MAESTRO and participated in optional community engagement. Pre- and post- surveys of these students assessed their self-reported understanding of social determinants of health (SDOH), comfort working with LEP and immigrant patients, and knowledge of community resources.
Before entering the program, all respondents reported comfort recognizing SDOH generally. However, 75% of pre-survey respondents reported comfort recognizing SDOH in their own community compared to 100% of post-survey respondents. Fifty percent of pre-survey respondents reported feeling comfortable caring for newly arrived immigrants, compared to 87.5% of post-survey respondents. The percentage of students reporting feeling comfortable caring for LEP patients and those of varying immigration status increased by 25% (62.5% pre, 87.5% post). Awareness of community resources increased. All respondents reported cultural considerations are important in healthcare & that the community engagement opportunity increased their cultural competency.
Early survey data suggests that completion of the preclinical portion of MAESTRO and associated community engagement opportunities increased student understanding of local SDOH, comfort with LEP and immigrant patients, and knowledge of community resources. Limitations include a small sample size and limited survey anchors. Future work should refine the survey instrument and use multiple cohorts’ responses.
1. Noe-Bustamante L, Flores A. Facts on Latinos in America. Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. Published October 22, 2020.
2. Diamond L, Izquierdo K, Canfield D, Matsoukas K, Gany F. A systematic review of the impact of patient-physician non-English language concordance on quality of care and outcomes. J Gen Intern Med. 2019 Aug;34(8):1591-1606.

212 - AWARD NOMINEE - Pre-clinical Vaccine Module to Increase Learner Proficiency With Evaluating Vaccine Research and Strengthen the Clinician-patient Vaccine Conversation

Michelle Demory Beckler
Nova Southeastern University

Recent rises in the incidence of vaccine-preventable illnesses and public apprehension regarding vaccination is considered a consequence of an abundance of misinformation circulated through the media. Accordingly, it is important that future clinicians are better equipped to understand vaccine-related literature and develop skills in having difficult conversations with patients. The purpose of this module was to facilitate critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of vaccine-related studies, to discuss true contraindications for vaccination and to aid students in the communication of vaccine truths.


This module incorporated different active learning approaches to maximize an understanding of primary vaccine literature as well as engage students in clinician-patient communication. Pre-reading consisted of the since retracted, though unknown at the time to students, Wakefield, A et al. manuscript that suggested the MMR vaccine is associated with autism. A pre-survey inquired about students’ vaccine perceptions. The module consisted of three parts in which students analyzed vaccine manuscripts, discussed myths and contraindications, and engaged in role-play. A post-survey assessed their satisfaction with the session and re-assessed their vaccine perceptions.


We present approaches for the incorporation of a curricular thread focused on vaccine research and communication for graduate and medical students. In addition, we present multi-cohort outcomes of student perceptions of and clinical communication about vaccination pre- and post-module delivery. Student satisfaction was high as indicated by post survey questions meant to evaluate student perceptions of engagement. Students indicated that they wish to spend more time assessing vaccine literature and engaging in role-play.


Our data suggests that students benefit from approaches to address vaccination knowledge, perceptions, and communication early in health professions education. In addition, data showed evidence of vaccine hesitancy in students prior to module delivery. Approaches to augment discussion of vaccination concerns is essential to promote vaccine acceptance in future physicians.

213 - The Impact of Prior Healthcare Employment on First-Year Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Opioid Use Disorder

Lauren Culver
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Title: The Impact of Prior Healthcare Employment on First-Year Medical Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Opioid Use Disorder

Authors: Lauren Culver, Tabitha Moses, Paige Baal, Tara Gloystein, Shabber Syed, Dr. Eva Waineo, Dr. Mark Greenwald

Background: Drug overdose is the leading cause of accidental death in the United States, resulting in 67,367 deaths in 2018 (CDC), nearly 70% of which involved opioids. As strategies develop to combat opioid use disorder (OUD) and overdose, research suggests continued gaps in medical education. Our goal was to study how previous paid employment in healthcare impacted knowledge and attitudes of first-year medical students towards opioid overdose.

Methods: We invited first-year medical students at WSU-SOM to complete a 15-minute online survey. Participation was voluntary and confidential. Information obtained included demographics, previous experience with naloxone and OUD, and Opioid Overdose Knowledge and Attitudes Scales (OOKS and OOAS, respectively). Independent t-tests were used to compare results between groups (previous vs. no previous healthcare employment).

Results: A total of 250 students (50% female, mean age: 23.38 ± 2.49 years) completed the survey. Of these, 164 (65.6%) reported previous paid experience in healthcare.

No significant differences were found between students with prior healthcare employment and those without on 3 of 4 OOKS subscales: overdose risk factors (p=0.091), signs of overdose (p=0.281), and actions to take during overdose (p=0.804). There was a significant difference in the naloxone use knowledge subscale (p=0.019).

Overall, students with previous healthcare employment felt more competent (p=0.002) and reported fewer concerns (p

214 - Establishing a Mentoring Program for Health Science Educators in a New Medical School

Beatriz Tapia
University of Texas Rio Grande Valley SOM
PURPOSE New Medical Schools need mentoring programs to enhance the personal and professional development of mentees and mentors. The need to establish a mentoring support mechanism is critical. This poster will share our progress to date. METHODS A pilot mentoring program was established for junior faculty. These faculty members were paired with an associate professor or professor to serve as mentors for career development and engage in a focused scholarly project over a nine-month period. Typically, the junior faculty is within the first three years of appointment and hold the rank of assistant professor. Each mentee will have 10% protected time for this program. Our mentoring program consists of the following requirements: 1) Develop an Individual Development Plan (IDP); 2) Schedule regular meetings with Mentor; 3)Attend faculty development mentoring activities; 4) Present a draft of a scholarly project; 5) Respond to surveys and evaluations; and 6) Attend the Graduation Ceremony. The mentoring program will be evaluated by mentee performance on Individual Development Plan (IDP), mentee-mentor meeting attendance, mentee participation in mentoring activities, mentee scholarly project presentation, mentor-mentee survey feedback, and mentoring program completion. RESULTS We will outline the benefits, challenges, and future implications of this pilot mentoring program. Mentors foster the opportunity to excel in academic medicine in clinical, teaching, and research. Mentees will serve as junior faculty champions for future mentees participants of the mentoring program. CONCLUSION A mentoring program is critical in Schools of Medicine and Health Science Center. We have seen that with formal mentoring programs, junior faculty have a higher recruitment, retention rate and are committed to the mission and vision of their institution. We will take the lessons learned and address gaps in the planning and implementing this mentoring program for future cohorts.

215 - A Mixed Methods Exploration of Factors that Influence Student Participation in Optional Formative Review Quizzes

Jessica Jones
Georgetown University School of Medicine
Weekly formative Review Quizzes are an integral feature of the Georgetown University School of Medicine (GUSOM) foundational curriculum. The Quizzes offer students an opportunity to test themselves in a low-stakes setting and then discuss their answers with peers in small groups; faculty are also present to help the groups with difficult problems. The activity was designed based on the social constructivist educational framework, which predicts that discussion with peers is critical to the learning process.

We conducted a mixed methods study in which we monitored quiz attendance over the course of the first four curricular blocks, deployed a study specific survey, and held focus groups to determine the factors that influenced quiz participation and how students perceived that the quiz contributed to learning.

We observed that Quiz attendance, while initially robust, dropped steadily over the course of the M1 year. Students reported that the practice questions along with faculty explanations contributed strongly to their learning, and agreed that questions should reflect the style and difficulty level of summative exams. While fewer students felt that discussion with their peers was valuable, those students who valued peer discussion were significantly more likely to attend the quiz regularly. The two things cited most often as barriers to quiz attendance where inconvenience and lack of adequate preparation. Many students reported that they saved questions and did not attempt to answer them until they had completed study of that subject.

Our results indicate that while there is ample evidence that early review and discussion with peers can contribute to learning, our learners do not always recognize the value in this practice.

216 - A Well-designed Ultrasound Elective Complementing the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum

Kenneth Leung
Carle Illinois College of Medicine
Kenneth Leung, M.S. and Olivia Coiado, Ph.D.
Carle Illinois College of Medicine, Champaign IL, 61822 U.S.A.

Although most medical schools have incorporated ultrasound training into their curriculum, as there are no adopted national standards, schools have variances in the ultrasound applications covered. Offering an ultrasound elective covering any gaps identified would be beneficial.

The Carle Illinois curriculum was thoroughly reviewed to assess for area gaps in attaining ultrasound acquisition and interpretation skills. Interpretation skills of ultrasound studies are frequently assessed in problem-based learning sessions during the pre-clinical phase. Students have imaging acquisition experience on ultrasound-guided vascular access, identifying kidney pathology, and performing abdominal ultrasounds in their pre-clinical cardiology, renal, and gastrointestinal blocks. During the clinical phase, students have one week during the OB/GYN clerkship observing obstetric ultrasounds and one week on cardiology service interpreting cardiology ultrasound studies. The assessment revealed limited opportunities in attaining deeper understanding of ultrasound applications not in these specialties. A clinical elective addressing the gaps was proposed.

A 4-week clinical ultrasound blended-learning elective was designed. Students complete 20 different online video modules for a deeper understanding in ultrasound and are assessed with a quiz at the completion of each module. Students enrolled have access to a mobile ultrasound device to scan themselves; this offering significantly enriched the learning experience. Students also rotate full days with physicians who utilize ultrasound in emergency medicine, hospital medicine, critical care, and radiology, as well as with sonographers. In addition to specialties already covered in the core curriculum, these specialties identified commonly use ultrasound in their clinical practice. During COVID-19 pandemic, the in-person rotation component of the elective was suspended. Completion of this elective have shown student competency in ruling out pneumothorax, DVTs, ureteral obstructions, and retinal detachments using ultrasound.

Medical schools looking to strengthen their ultrasound training should consider offering an ultrasound elective complementary to their core curriculum after a thorough assessment of content gaps.

217 - Anatomical Sciences Teaching Elective: a Fourth-year Longitudinal Elective That Provides Teaching Opportunities for Graduating Medical Students

Dj Lowrie
University of Cincinnati
Most medical schools have transitioned from discipline-based to integrated curricula. Although the adoption of integrated examinations usually accompanies this change, stand-alone practical examinations are often retained for disciplines such as gross anatomy and histology. The purpose of this study is to 1) compare examination performance on histology questions administered as part of stand-alone (practical) versus integrated examinations, and 2) ascertain whether students alter their approach to learning histology content based on examination type.
Student performance on histology questions administered as a stand-alone (practical) were compared to performance when similar/identical questions were included in integrated examinations over a six-year period (n=4 years stand-alone, n=2 years integrated) in an endocrine/reproductive course. Because other courses in the curriculum still utilize stand-alone histology examinations, students were surveyed to determine whether their approach to learning histology differed based on the assessment approach.
Analysis of variance and t-tests were initially used to determine the comparability of examination results within each subset of stand-alone and integrated examinations. Results indicated there was no significant difference between the years for stand-alone (p=0.84) or integrated (p=0.94) examinations. This suggested that the results within each examination format could be pooled for the reminder of analyses. The average for four years (2015-2019) of stand-alone examinations was 87.8% (SD = 13), while examination averages of histology content on integrated examinations spanning two years (2020-2021) was 85.7% (SD = 11). A t-test comparing these results showed the difference between these two groups was not significant (p=0.38)
Although there was a slight drop in student performance on histology content when it was tested as part of an integrated examination, the difference was not statistically significant. Coupled with survey data, these results suggest that while students’ approach to histology learning differs slightly, examination performance is similar regardless of the testing format.

218 - Connecting Biochemistry Knowledge to Patient Care: a Qualitative Study of Fourth-year Medical Students' Perceptions

Tracy Fulton

219 - Student Perceptions of a Medical Curriculum With Full Temporal Integration of Foundational Science and Clinical Skills Training: a Phenomenographic Study

Judy Aronson
University of Texas Medical Branch, John Sealy SOM
PURPOSE: UTMB’s pilot competency-based medical curriculum (SEA CHange) featured thorough integration of foundational science teaching with clinical experiences. The scarcity of literature on medical student experience of integrated curricula prompted us to study SEA CHange students’ perceptions of their medical school training.
METHODS: This qualitative, phenomenographic study was conducted by a co-director of the curriculum (JA) and a PhD nurse educator and qualitative researcher who was not involved in SEA CHange (CW). Student input was obtained through a semi-structured group interview of the entire first cohort of eight SEA CHange students in their final semester. Transcripts were reviewed to derive units of meaning, which were then compared and grouped into categories to comprehensively describe the “outcome space” and represent critical variation in the data. The first author’s “pre-understanding” (deep involvement with students and curriculum) enriched the interpretation [reflexivity] and was balanced by the senior author’s qualitative research experience and objectivity [reduction].
RESULTS: We discovered four categories of student understanding of their medical school experience. 1) The Process of Learning incorporated individual learning actions, curricular structure contributions, and interpersonal interactions (advising, mentoring, and collaboration) 2) Affective Experience included spontaneous expressions of emotions experienced, ranging from joy, humility, and confidence to struggle, challenge and frustration 3) Learning about self and others comprised student reflections about their own growth and ability to see things from the viewpoints of patients, fellow students, or faculty 4) Utility and value described perceptions of the usefulness of the curriculum in achieving twin goals of career development and preparation for patient care. Students reflected with fresh perspectives on the overall value of foundational science in patient care.
CONCLUSIONS: The outcome space of student perceptions outlined an integrated experience of personal and professional growth in which mastery of foundational science played a supportive, but minor, role.

220 - The Transition From Lecture-based to Student-centered Medical School Curricula in the Pre-clinical Years

Joshua Burshtein
Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
Medical school core curricula have shifted emphasis from a conventional, lecture-based curriculum to a student-centered approach with the aim of applying biomedical facts to clinical scenarios and fostering problem-solving skills in the preclinical years. We describe the process of modernization of the core curriculum, from lecture-based, instructor-centered environments to student-centered, problem-solving environments.

A retrospective review was conducted of over 40 publications, including journal articles, books, and multimedia. This literature focused on various learning methods, assessment techniques, and undergraduate medical education curricula. Our analysis details the pedagogical transition from lecture-based to student-centered learning and compares the methodologies based on their structure and application. Themes under investigation include traditional lecture-based learning and student-centered learning, including case-based learning (CBL), problem-based learning (PBL), team-based learning (TBL), and self-directed learning (SDL).

In 2018, AAMC found that 124 medical schools indicated a curriculum change was planned or had been implemented within the prior three years. The same analysis showed 66% increased use of case-based curricula, 38% increased use of team-based learning, and 52% increased self-directed learning. Moreover, our research has established that the shift to the student-centered pedagogies offers superior engagement with learning and application as compared to the traditional model that places emphasis on passive acquisition of material. Furthermore, our research also shows that students develop competencies such as problem-solving skills, applying biomedical science to clinical scenarios, and self-directed learning.

In the age of exponential technological advancement where facts can be acquired instantly, medical schools have transitioned from a traditional lecture-based curriculum to curricula that foster applying biomedical science and problem-solving skills through student-centered learning. Our research has shown that majority of medical schools have put curriculum in place in order to achieve this goal.

221 - AWARD NOMINEE - Student Engagement in the CQI Process: How Using Kotter's Eight-Step Model Led to a Course Improvement

Bailey MacInnis
Carle Illinois College of Medicine
Student Engagement in the CQI process: how using Kotter’s eight-step model led to a course improvement
Bailey MacInnis, Lidija Barbaric, Iuliana Balascuta, Donald Greeley MD, Kashif Ahmad MD PhD
1. Carle Illinois College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1406 W. Green St, Urbana, Illinois 61821, USA. Phone +1 (217) 300-7115; E-mail: (corresponding author).
2. Office of Academic Learning Environment, Ross University School of Medicine, Miramar, FL

Medical Schools are committed to maintaining compliance with the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME) accreditation standards. Creating a culture of continuous quality improvement though evidenced-based learning is an important aspect of maintaining LCME accreditation status. While several schools have published their approaches to CQI, student involvement in the CQI process is incompletely explored.
At Carle Illinois College of Medicine, an allopathic medical school that opened in 2018 and the world’s first engineering-based medical school, we are committed to involving students in the CQI process. By using the Kotter’s 8 step model for change management, Carle Illinois students were able to engage in the CQI process and help transform Carle Illinois’s respiratory basic sciences course from the inaugural teaching of the course in 2018 to the second iteration in 2019.

The authors describe a method of frequent, granular feedback collection rooted in Kotter’s 8 step model. The authors also explain how this model can promote student involvement and buy-in in the CQI process.

By harnessing Kotter’s 8 step method in conjunction with the student perspective, Carle Illinois’s Respiratory course directors were able to quickly identify and implement necessary changes to the school’s respiratory curriculum. Changes included restructuring of the course’s pathology and radiology lectures to improve content retention, rearranging the course order to alleviate unnecessary stress, and adding various activities to ensure full coverage of necessary content.

Buy-in from all stakeholders, especially medical students, is an important aspect of an effective, engaging, and transformative CQI process. We believe that by expressing their voice, medical students are becoming active participants in the betterment and advancement of medical education.

223 - Development of a Longitudinal M4 Elective in Biological Rhythms and Medicine: From Bench to Bedside

Lauren Fowler
University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville
Lauren A. Fowler
University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville

At USCSOMG, the curriculum seeks to integrate clinical and foundational sciences, but these opportunities are limited in the 4th year of undergraduate medical education. In 2020 a longitudinal elective was established to promote application of primary research related to biological rhythms and their influence on human health and disease. The Biological Rhythms in Medicine course was designed to allow students with clinical experience to apply foundational concepts from the biomedical sciences and research in biological rhythms to their experiences in the clinic.
Course content was developed to emphasize concepts related to current trends in health and disease. Concepts covered included (among others) chronopharmacology, chrononutrition and exercise, shiftwork, sleep, and the role of rhythms in chronic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and age-related diseases. Emphasis was placed on the application of knowledge, gained through readings from current research. Active self-assessment of biological rhythms by the students was also included.
Sixteen 4th year medical students participated in the first year of this course. Journal article reviews, discussion boards and class discussions were used to allow students to demonstrate knowledge gained. Final presentations allowed students to integrate and personalize what they had learned and apply it to their future clinical practices. Public Outreach Briefs were developed in both written and visual formats to encourage students to explore ways to explain the role of biological rhythms in health and disease with their future patients. All students indicated that they gained new knowledge from the course, and 94% of students plan to incorporate concepts learned in their future practices.
The development of a longitudinal elective in Biological Rhythms in Medicine provided 4th year medical students with an opportunity to apply concepts related to rhythms and health to themselves and to issues they will face in their future clinical practice.

224 - An Early Intervention, Case-based Learning Approach to LGBTQ+ Senior Health Equity for Medical Students

Chasity O'Malley
Nova Southeastern University
PURPOSE: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and other (LGBTQ+) individuals experience disparate health outcomes due to multiple factors including discrimination, stigmatization, and reluctance to seek healthcare due to fear of discriminatory treatment by healthcare providers. Marginalization of LGBTQ+ individuals due to structural barriers that limit access to healthcare, also increases the risk for poor mental health outcomes. There is a clear need to increase cultural and structural competencies of medical students to serve LGBTQ+ individuals, but training of this nature is still underrepresented in medical school curricula.  We implemented a workshop to train medical students regarding best practices for equitable healthcare for members of the LGBTQ+ community. METHODS: Second year medical students participated in a 3-hour workshop focused on unique aspects of care needed for LGBTQ+ patients. The first hour was an interactive lecture by a physician with extensive experience serving LGBTQ+ patients. The second and third hours involved small group discussions with 6-8 students that centered on clinical case scenarios with LGBTQ+ patients that emphasized best practices for optimal healthcare. Discussions were facilitated by patient guests from the LGBTQ+ community. Facilitators assessed student engagement and professionalism using a rubric developed by the study team. Students’ knowledge and confidence regarding LGBTQ+ health disparities and best healthcare practices was assessed before and following the session. RESULTS:  51 students participated in the session and 25 (49%) completed the pre/post surveys. There was a significant (p< 0.005) increase in student confidence of their knowledge of LGBTQ+ health disparities and best healthcare practices following the session. Students did not show significant change in knowledge of the topics presented, having initially scored high on the pre-assessment. CONCLUSIONS: This workshop involving members of the LGBTQ+ community and an experienced physician was effective at increasing student confidence in their knowledge  about best practices to ensure improved healthcare outcomes for LGBTQ+ patients.

225 - The Effect of Drawing Microbiology Concepts on Short-Term Retention Before and After Interrupted Learning

Robert Waters
Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine
During preclinical education medical students are required to learn numerous topics that must be retained and added to over time. Studies have shown that generative learning, such as drawing, can improve retention. However, limited studies have been conducted on the use of drawing activities at the medical school level. Additionally, according to the contiguity effect, learners comprehend information better when corresponding words are presented closer to an image. However, no studies have been performed that investigated the effectiveness of labeling drawings. This study aimed to utilize mechanism-based drawing with labeling to reinforce medical microbiology/immunology topics during online drawing workshops.

First year medical students attended three drawing workshops which they were required to draw several different topics, half of which were labeled with corresponding words, and the other half labeled with numbers. Multiple-choice questions evaluating comprehension of topics covered during the drawing workshop were compared to questions that were not covered during the workshop as part of three course assessments.

Students performed significantly better on topics covered during the drawing workshop compared to those that were not on the workshop. Students also performed significantly better on the assessments for questions on drawings they labeled with words compared to those labeled with numbers. When comparing the discrimination index between drawing and non-drawing questions and topics labeled with words and those labeled with numbers there was no significant difference.

Results presented here show that students perform significantly better when lecture material is reinforced during online drawing workshops and when they are labeled with corresponding words. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of combining different generative learning techniques, including drawing, in the medical school curriculum.

226 - Characteristics of Early Learners in Medical School

Alisa Illescas
Resistance in learning (RIL) defines a set of attitudes or behaviors demonstrated by learners in an educational setting that result in decreased learning. Literature describes the etiology as multifactorial, including learning environment, teaching style and characteristics of the learner. We set out to describe the latter at a southwestern School of Medicine.

This is a descriptive study of MS1s and MS2s in the class of 2023 and 2019, N = 98. The data source included Likert scale and open response. Measures included study strategies (more effective vs. less effective), academic self-efficacy (perceived readiness for USMLE Step 1), goal orientation (performance vs. mastery), and motivation for medicine (intrinsic vs. extrinsic).

Student’s reported a mean of 29.5 (range = 6-50; sd = 11.8) hours per week studying. 56% vs. 63% of student’s identified with using more effective vs. less effective study strategies. 78% of students perceived themselves to be self-efficacious in their preparation for USMLE Step 1. 95% students reported mastery-oriented goals, and 87% reported performance-oriented goals. 94% of MS1s endorsed an intrinsic motivation for medicine while 78% of MS2s endorsed an extrinsic motivation.

Early learners are beginning to use more active forms of learning, however are still using passive learning techniques. They maintain a strong sense of self efficacy in academic achievement and prioritize wanting to master content, yet also want to perform well. Students are intrinsically motivated at the start of medical school, citing making an impact, serving others and curiosity as their top motivation to enter Medical School. As curriculum progresses, student have a shift toward an extrinsic motivation for learning, with USMLE Step 1 as their primary focus. Motivation to learn vs. perform could be increased by making core curriculum content more relevant to USMLE Step 1.

227 - A Course in Medical Facilitation: Fostering the Professional Growth of Healthcare Students

Hira Qureshi
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
A major aim of healthcare education is the development of compassionate providers who are adept at communicating, responsive to the personal and societal contexts of illness, and reflective about their professional role. To meet this goal, we have designed an interprofessional course for early trainees in which students will be paired with seriously ill patients alongside whom they can experience healthcare over an extended period of time.


Medical facilitation is a service that provides support related to communication, information processing, and decision making to patients with serious illness. Our elective is designed to give a cohort of medical, nursing, and physician assistant students the opportunity to participate in the provision of medical facilitation services. These students will accompany patients to their medical appointments, see and hear how illness impacts patients and their loved ones, and explore how to provide meaningful support. Additionally, students will attend a weekly two-hour class. Half of each meeting will be devoted to activities related to communication, contexts of illness, self-awareness, partnering, and/or professional responsibility. The other half will be dedicated to discussion of the patient cases.


Students will submit weekly reflections that will serve as data for a qualitative study of the course’s impact on how participants approach interactions with patients and how they understand their professional role. Secondary themes of interest include interprofessional identity, context-sensitive practice, and self-care. Further feedback will be solicited from students at the completion of their respective programs in order to examine the longer-term influence of the course.


We believe that medical facilitation can be an effective educational tool to foster personal and professional growth. We expect that students will leave our elective with a deepened desire and improved capacity to understand what it means to be on the other side of the medical encounter.

228 - The Impact of a Modified Y Block to Trainee Education, Productivity, Patient Care, and Board Passing

Bhanu Chaganti
Texas Tech University Medical Center
PURPOSE: The X+Y scheduling model is a novel system where the inpatient blocks (X) are separated from the outpatient blocks (Y). This study determined the impact of an X+Y model with a modified Y block (X+mY) on trainee education, wellness, board passing rates, number of scholarly activities, and unanswered clinic phone notes.
METHODS: In July 2018, the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso Internal Medicine Residency Program transitioned from the traditional scheduling model to an X+mY model. The modifications included the addition of wellness, research, administrative, didactic, procedural, and educational days during the ambulatory blocks. Annual administrative and research, didactic and procedural training, wellness, and protected educational time were determined before and after implementing the X+mY model. The impact on trainee productivity and patient care were evaluated by determining the number of annual scholarly activities and the number and duration of phone notes (mean ± SEM) before and after the implementation of the modified model. Board passing rates were reported as Percentage.
RESULTS: After the implementation of the X+mY, trainees were given access to an annual 56 hours each of protected educational, research and administrative, didactics and procedural, and wellness times. Annual scholarly activities before and after the implementation of the X+mY model were 35 and 45, respectively. The baseline number and duration of unanswered phone notes were 35 ± 6.4 and 11.2 ± 3.4 (days), which improved to 23.7 ± 2.3 and 6.8 ± 0.6 (days), respectively. 2-year board passing rates were 97% and 100%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This novel modification provides additional protected time for trainees to utilize for their education, wellness, research, and fulfill their administrative duties, which could benefit struggling trainees. Aside from its reproducibility, this model can decrease the amount and duration of unanswered clinic phone notes when paired with an effective answering system.

229 - Students and Faculty Collaborate Virtually to Restructure Medical Student Research

Hannah Saven
SUNY Downstate Health Science University
Research experience and meaningful publication are vital to a successful residency application. The transformation of Step 1 to Pass/Fail has increased pressure on students and faculty to accelerate research activities that lead to presentation and publication. SUNY Downstate has a long history of strong student-faculty reciprocal mentoring in strengthening our curriculum. Previously, the MS4 research requirement was less effective for learning research methodology and writing. Despite the emergency need for a remote learning environment, students and faculty from the College of Medicine and Graduate School expedited a required initiative for all students to participate in research and write a hypothesis driven paper before graduation.
Prior to the pandemic, we distributed a Qualtrics survey to evaluate research opportunities and barriers in medical school. Data analysis added support to form the student-faculty group that created an MS4 required research experience project (REP). This group met weekly to create requirements and assessments.
Survey responses from 203 medical students provided quantitative and qualitative data on research activities, outcomes, and barriers experienced by those who had not done research. Both MS3 and MS4 students were allowed to take the REP in 2020 due to Covid-related curricular modifications. 102 students have completed the program. 94% of students that completed feedback rated the experience favorably. By March, the REP predicts that 100% of COM 2021 students will complete the program. Prior to this, survey responses indicated that 198/236 student across all classes participated in research during medical school.
Student-faculty collaboration was essential to develop the REP and to advance related curriculum initiatives which give students opportunities and skills needed to begin research by the end of their first year. A larger collaborative group was established to create a longitudinal research experience over all four years and track student research and publication data to monitor our progress.

230 - Starting medical school remotely? Exam performance & student perceptions.

Marieke Kruidering-Hall
University of California San Francisco
Remote medical school: Exam performance & student perceptions.

To evaluate the impact of remote education on undergraduate medical students’ learning.

The UCSF Bridges curriculum is an integrated, organ systems-based curriculum. Pre-Covid-19, students learned via multiple modalities including: cadaveric dissection labs, lectures, small groups, online videos, interactive online modules, and comprehensive case-based wrap-up sessions. Summative assessments are open ended questions (OEQ) that require knowledge application.
Anatomy assessments include OEQ and timed cadaveric identification practical exams. Here we describe the adaption of the first MS2 course to a virtual format and compare student performance to previous years’ in-person cohorts.

We collected MS2 OEQ and anatomy practical scores in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 academic years. OEQs were scored by trained faculty on a scale of 1-6 using a holistic rubric: “meets expectations” (5,6), “borderline” (3,4), or “does not meet expectations” (1,2). Identical objectives were tested on the OEQ in 2019 and 2020. OEQ scores were averaged and analyzed using an independent samples t-test. Anatomy practical scores were analyzed in SPSS software using an independent samples t-test. Survey data were analyzed for emerging themes.

Mean OEQ performance was not significantly different between cohorts.2020 ave 85% (stdev 5);2019 ave 84% (stdev 5). Anatomy performance was significantly higher for the 2020 MS2s on the virtual anatomy practical examination compared to the 2019 MS2 on cadavers (p < 0.001). 52 students (30% of MS2 cohort) responded; 90% of responding MS2’s perceived remote learning as at least moderately effective, and 64% of the MS2 students subjectively enjoyed remote learning.

Remote instruction did not decrease exam performance for the OEQ-based summative examination, while the anatomy practical exam performance increased significantly, suggesting knowledge transfer occurs via remote teaching; The MS2s preferred in person cadaveric teaching over remote anatomy, but enjoyed remote interactive instruction for non-lab- based topics.

231 - Preclinical Medical Student Expectations of Active Participation in Research

Martin Schmidt
Des Moines University
While it is universally accepted that graduating medical students need to be able to utilize research findings for lifelong learning and practice improvement, the importance of actively conducting and publishing research during undergraduate medical education is less clear. The present study sheds light on the subjective and objective importance of active participation in research though analyses of student essays and residency selection criteria.
Subjective measures: DMU-COM OMS2 students’ reflective essays on “the importance of research for medical practice” were coded for stated definitive and tentative plans to actively engage in research after graduation. Essays were submitted as a required activity for professional identity formation following attendance of the keynote address at the DMU research symposium.
Objective measures: Residency placement data of DMU-COM graduates from 2008 to present (N=2175) were aggregated by specialty and correlated with the relative importance of involvement in research as residency applicant selection criterion (2018 NRMP Program Director Survey).
An analysis of student essays from the DO22 and DO23 cohort (N at time of writing = 284) show that the majority of students have either definitive (31.7%) or tentative (29.4%) plans to conduct research during their careers; 38.8% do not foresee active participation in research. An analysis of DMU-COM residency placement data show that most DMU graduates are entering residencies that place below-average value on “demonstrated involvement and interest in research” as a selection criterion for interviews (88.2%) and applicant ranking (76.9%).
Our data show that a significant number of the DMU-COM students do not foresee active participation in research, and that for the majority of students an active participation in research is not among the most important criteria for success in the residency application process. These findings are useful to inform decisions on strengthening the research curriculum and will allow to tailor educational experiences to the perceived need of stakeholders.

232 - Challenges in the Development of a Distance Learning Contingency Plan for an International Medical Clerkship Rotation

Melinda Ledbetter
Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine

233 - An Exploration of the Relationship Between Four Cohorts of Medical Students' Decisisons About Cadaver Naming and Their Dissection-based Anatomy Course Experience

Anna Sharabura
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Anna Sharabura,1 John Sherrill,1 Tim Atkinson1, and Edgar R. Meyer1
1University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 U.S.A.

There are limited data demonstrating how student performance or experiences might be impacted by their cadaver-naming decisions. Nevertheless, prior work showed that students who knew personal information, such as first names, about their donors performed better in gross anatomy courses than less informed students. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between first-, second-, third-, and fourth-year medical students’ cadaver-naming decisions and their performance and experiences in a dissection-based anatomy course.

A survey investigating their interactions with their cadavers during their dissection and anatomy courses overall was administered to first-year medical student volunteers at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). This same survey was uploaded as a link on second-, third-, and fourth-year medical students’ online learning management platforms. This study was deemed exempt by the UAMS Institutional Review Board. Participant responses will be analyzed based on students’ choices to name or not name their cadaver and their agreement or disagreement with their table group in the naming process.

ANOVAs will be used to compare students’ responses and performance outcomes (e.g., exam scores, final grade) while accounting for students’ reported stressors and coping mechanisms during the course. Consideration of these variables will help determine more legitimately whether cadaver interactions are correlated with students’ course performance. The results will help determine the efficacy of the cadaver-naming phenomenon as a means for fostering student success in gross anatomy courses.

Students’ habits of giving names to their cadavers have shown great potential in improving the positivity of their experiences in cadaver-based anatomy courses. However, additional analyses of results in this study will determine whether such habits have positive influences on students’ course performance. Future studies will examine this cadaver-naming phenomenon and its impact among different cohorts of medical and other healthcare professional students.

234 - A Comprehensive Students-as-teachers Program: Developing and Empowering Future Medical Educators

Deborah Barry
University of Virginia
Medical students at the University of Virginia have the opportunity to act as teaching assistants (TA) during their fourth year of study. We developed a comprehensive and robust training program to develop medical students as educators in preparation for role as a TA.
This program was developed utilizing a backwards course design, first piloted in 2017. Since then, three formats of the course have been offered, a two-week intensive in-person course meeting for 50 contact hours, a workshop series meeting for 10 contact hours, and an online intensive delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Each course format includes the opportunity for students to develop their teaching philosophy, practice skills-based teaching, microteaching, write and review multiple choice questions, and the complete a capstone project. Students within the intensive format courses develop their communication skills, review pedagogy related to medical education, gain additional experience microteaching, and receive additional guidance to complete their capstone project.

To date,138 students have completed the training program, while 116 students have subsequently completed a TA. Students have developed high quality pre-recorded lectures, study guides, and assessment questions that have been implemented across the curricula for first- and second- year students. Several of these projects have been created to supplement third- and fourth-year clerkships and electives as well as out-of-classroom experiences, such as diversity, equity, inclusion, wellness and stress- management. Faculty have reported on the high-quality of student created materials, as well as increased involvement of teaching assistants after their participation in the training program.
This comprehensive program designed to assist medical students gain competency in various aspects of medical education has resulted in a wide variety of student created materials that have been implemented in our curricula. Both students and faculty report an increase in teaching assistant skills as a result of participation.

235 - Internalization of the Professional Values

Shima Tabatabai
Shahid beheshti university of medical sciences, Tehran
Internalization of the professional values Background & Purpose: Internalization of the professional values (PV)related as the main requirement for medical practice is very important just like the way these values are taught and learned. This study's aim is to investigate the medical education experts’ viewpoint about professional values as a step towards integrating PV in medical education. Methods: A qualitative approach was adopted for this study. The data were obtained from the panel discussions with medical education experts with a variety of experiences in Iran. All sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The participants expressed their views and experiences on the values of the medical profession and the way these values should present in medical education. The data analysis revealed 4 main categories: 1) Employing effective faculty development methods 2) Employing Educational strategies including teaching, learning, and assessment methods of PV. by qualified faculty and clinical mentors, 3) Role of context and regulations to present PV. & 4) strengthening the hidden curriculum. Experts recommended that value-based medicine should be integrated into the general medical curriculum as a longitudinal theme. Specifically, the integration of professional values and their assessment in the clinical phase is recommended. Conclusion: To address the Internalization of the professional values in medical students, the main factors, i.e., value-based Educational strategies, contextual values, and executive resources for strengthening the hidden curriculum should be considered. Developing a formal value-centered medical educations system would be necessary and integrating the professional values with all its phases recommended. Employing effective teaching and assessment methods by means of qualified faculty/clinical mentors with valuable experiences is necessary for the internalization of the professional value in medical students.

236 - An Integrated, Longitudinal Health Equity Curriculum to Prepare Socially Responsible Healthcare Practitioners

Rupa Lalchandani Tuan
University of California, San Francisco
Title: An integrated, longitudinal Health Equity curriculum to prepare socially responsible healthcare practitioners

The racial injustices amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic have stressed the importance of educating healthcare professionals to be advocates for social justice. We designed and implemented a ten-week Health Equity curriculum to promote structural competency and reduce implicit bias in healthcare providers. The purpose was to teach students to identify and recognize structural causes of health disparities, design interventions, and engage in equitable, civil, and compassionate discussions. Here we report on student performance and attitudes regarding this curriculum.

The curriculum was a mandatory component of the Neuropsychiatric Theme for second year Pharmacy students. Students were assigned to subgroups of 5-6 and distributed across self-identified gender and ethnicity. The curriculum was conducted remotely and consisted of didactic material, asynchronous online discussions, and synchronous Zoom discussions. Didactic material included videos, podcasts, journal articles, and faculty-created lectures. Asynchronous discussions were structured around the didactic content and open-ended prompts were provided to stimulate conversation. Three live discussions provided students with space to discuss the topics in real time. Four main topics were covered: (1) cultural and structural influences on mental health, (2) mental health and LGBTQ populations, (3) homelessness, deinstitutionalization and the mental health system, and (4) a student-identified topic. A survey was administered before and after the curriculum, and topics were assessed in an OSCE.

Student responses from pre- and post-surveys will be compared and quantitatively analyzed. A thematic qualitative analysis of student responses to open-ended questions will be conducted and compared. OSCE performance will be assessed for application of what was learned.

Given the challenges of integrating health disparities education into already impacted curricula, we believe our curriculum presents a rich learning experience with minimal in-class time and has potential for wide dissemination across health professional schools. From this study, we will gain insight into student engagement and performance in an online Health Equity curriculum.

237 - AWARD NOMINEE - Evaluating Educational Outcomes Across Preclinical and Clerkship Years of Medical School Analgesic and Opioid Educational Activities

Jake Bentley
University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Institutions have called on medical schools to improve education in pain, analgesics, and opioids. Our institution integrates pain education throughout the curriculum with pharmacology mostly in the second year (M2). Our purpose was to evaluate outcomes of our educational processes by examining initial increases in analgesic knowledge, retention in third (M3) and fourth (M4) year students, and learner’s perceptions of educational effectiveness.


We retrospectively examined performance on multiple choice questions (MCQ) weeks after activities in M2 students. We looked at retention of analgesic concepts by quizzing M3 (N=30) and M4 (N=36) volunteers months to years later. We compared M3 & M4 results with a cohort (N=50) who hadn’t yet experienced the opioid curriculum as the baseline. All cohorts answered survey questions on the curriculum.


Summative MCQ data showed that M2’s initially mastered opioid and pain concepts (Mean 86%) and retained knowledge in M3 & M4, scoring significantly higher on concepts taught 6 months to a year previously then the baseline group (p80% M3 & M4), confidence (15% baseline cohort, 67% M3; 80% M4), and awareness (12% Baseline cohort, 60% in M3 & M4) increased in M3/M4 cohorts in comparison with the baseline cohort. Lower scoring items included integration of basic science in clerkship and diversity.


Data suggested that initial analgesic knowledge increased and learners retained many concepts years later, supporting the effectiveness of analgesic educational processes. Learners’ opinions were mostly positive, perceiving that the educational processes increased comprehension, confidence in treating pain, and awareness of tools, but many felt that educational activities were insufficiently diverse and the integration of basic sciences could be improved in clerkship opioid and pain education.

238 - Fostering the Development of Health Professions Education Scholars through Collaborative Learning & Practice

Maria Rudd
Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine
Background: Advancement of high-quality health professions education research is dependent upon the development of educators who can design research with the same rigor demanded in basic science or clinical research. To support this need, one teaching academy used a social constructivist approach to develop an interdisciplinary program comprised of a health professions education research curriculum in conjunction with an internal resource supported and mentor-guided education research project.

Methods: Authors developed the Health professions Education Scholars (HERS) program, designed to facilitate participants through individual health professions education research project. A competitive selection process was established to identify participants. The program curriculum included the AAMC Medical Education Research Certification (MERC) program, internally led instruction, hands-on training, and mentorship through the design and execution of a health professions education research project.

Results: Eight clinicians were selected to participate in the first year of the program. Participants represented a diverse group of educators from across the health system. Participants were matched with a mentor and required to protect one designated day per month to devote to participation in the program. At the end of the first cycle, all participants received MERC certification and disseminated/presented their projects at the regional, national, and/or international level. The second cycle of the program began with 8 participants in Fall 2019. The program was revised to an 18-month curriculum after feedback from our first cycle.

Discussion: The HERS program was designed to provide instruction in health professions education research principles and practical skills to do so effectively, foster collaboration within health professions education research, and develop participants as leaders in academic medicine. The authors feel that this intensive, mentorship-guided program has and will continue to improve the execution of health professions education at their institution, build a coalition of skilled medical education researchers, and ultimately contribute to national and international academic research on health professions education.

239 - A Teamwork Approach to Compiling a Review Paper on COVID-19 Experimental Technologies

Md Shahnoor Amin
Carle Illinois College of Medicine at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Md Shahnoor Amin1and Olivia Coiado1
1 Carle Illinois College of Medicine, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801
2 Department of Biomedical and Translational Sciences, Carle Illinois College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801 U.S.A.
The Carle Illinois College of Medicine is the first college in the nation designed at the intersection of engineering and medicine. Our goal is to develop a new generation of physician-innovators that can apply quantitative skills and collaborate with different teams to devise health care solutions. The goal of this study is to describe the design of a Literature Review Elective about COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2.
The elective was a 4-week course designed by a biomedical engineering faculty. A multidisciplinary group of faculty, post-doctorate, and medical students collaborated on this comprehensive literature review paper on experimental technologies utilized in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. The objectives of the elective were: think critically about important issues related with COVID-19; critique possible therapies in the context of the current COVID-19 outbreak, enhance communication skills, and foster teamwork.
The initial 2 weeks were spent on literature review to understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and how it compares to prior epidemics and pandemics. Over the next 2 weeks, the research team conducted a thorough investigation of the literature related to diagnostic and therapeutic technologies used to manage COVID-19. Finally, the team completed the review paper, made grammatical corrections, corrected the extensive list of references, and determined authorship. The paper was subsequently submitted to a relevant journal for review in June 2020.
Students learned how to search scientific papers on online libraries and websites, and how to organize, analyze, and criticize the literature review. This elective has demonstrated the importance of continuing research collaborations across multiple departments in the midst of a pandemic, fostering a sense of comradery in an uncertain time, and compelling students to learn about a novel disease that was not in medical school textbooks.

240 - A Step Towards Change: Integrating Health Systems Science Into Fourth Year of Medical School

Sarah Siddiqui
University of Texas Medical Branch
The COVID pandemic brings to the forefront several gaps in United States’ healthcare and public health systems along with health inequities among vulnerable populations. It has never been more evident and critical for us to recognize, develop, and implement health systems science (HSS) curriculum into medical education. Whereas the traditional model has been to focus on basic and clinical sciences, the recent movement calls for integrating HSS as the third pillar. Improving the understanding of HSS among medical students will enable them to become more well-rounded physicians who can apply their foundational knowledge and improve the health of their patients and community. We describe the curriculum for a new course called “Health Systems Science & Community Service Course (HSS Course)” at the University of Texas Medical Branch.

The HSS course is a required, longitudinal course for fourth year medical students. It consists of two key components: 1) online, self-directed learning focusing on HSS domains including, but not limited to, health system improvement, social determinants of health, and systems thinking, 2) participating in community service. The overall goal of this course is for students to increase their knowledge and understanding of the various HSS domains. Assignments include online modules, community service, reflective assignments, and tests.

We are currently in our first year of implementation of the course. As this is a self-directed course with mostly virtual experience, it makes it more compatible and flexible during the COVID pandemic.

While implementing this course has laid a foundation for the HSS curriculum, we recognize the importance of evaluation especially as this course is in its infancy. We plan to review course evaluations by students. Some areas of improvement we are considering for next academic year include creating virtual interactive small group activities and moving towards community service learning experiences.

241 - A Summer Research Curriculum to Cultivate Medical Student Research

Jonathan Murrow
Augusta University - University of Georgia Medical Partnership
Evidence-based medicine serves as the bedrock of high quality, high value health care delivery. Medical student research experience holds enduring value among educators and students alike. Despite this emphasis, research experience during undergraduate medical education varies from self-directed exposure to formal year-long curricula.

In this context, we evaluated the hypothesis that developing a formal research curriculum would improve knowledge, attitudes, and outputs among medical students. We developed this curriculum by performing a needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, determining the optimal educational strategy, and implementing the curriculum through six weekly instructional sessions delivered over a 10 week summer research elective. Pre- and post- surveys were performed to assess knowledge and attitudes that students held about research.

Goals and objectives of a medical student research curriculum included the need to define a research question, to develop a protocol, to analyze results, to synthesize findings, and to communicate new knowledge to a broad audience. In our cohort of students, twenty one completed the course. The majority had no prior research experience, and many identified successful residency matching as a reason for pursuing research. Students increased confidence as a cohort in addressing research setbacks and analyzing data after completing the course. Students had high confidence in performing literature reviews and writing proposals before and after the curriculum, while endorsing low confidence in preparing grant proposals.

This novel curriculum identifies key motives that students identify in pursuing research experiences while in medical school. Formal curricular elements offer the opportunity to increase confidence in engaging research setbacks and in analyzing data. Further work should help to refine areas where students are most likely to benefit from research instruction.

242 - Interdisciplinary Challenge Based Learning for healthcare programs

Silvia Olivares Olivares
Tecnológico de Monterrey
Professional identity requires the dynamic evolution of the individual, who forms relationships and assumes roles in various professional groups and contexts. Tec Week is an educational strategy that aims to shape professional identity while developing competencies through reflection, experimentation, and daily life experiences. This study aimed to identify the students' perceived value of their experiences during Tec Week to form professional identities and gain skills. We gathered data from 33 students in two focus groups. The coding of students comments about the Tec Week activities and workshops evidenced the value of specific phases of professional identity developed from self-knowledge and collaboration in connected networks.

243 - AWARD NOMINEE - Are You Ready?: Assessing Educational Needs for the Genomic Era of Medicine

Matthew Ryan
Are You Ready?: Assessing Educational Needs for the Genomic Era of Medicine
PURPOSE: Clinical genomics is transforming the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. However, there are not enough clinical geneticists and genetic counselors to meet the increasing demand, and non-geneticist clinicians feel under-prepared to incorporate genetics/genomics into practice.1-3 We hypothesized that non-geneticist clinicians want training in order to practice and teach genomic medicine confidently, and sought to identify specific educational needs of clinicians/trainees at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).

METHODS: In a mixed methods study, key informant interviews with 13 Department Chairs from UCSF School of Medicine using an 8-question interview guide were coded using thematic qualitative analysis. These interviews informed development of a 28-item survey widely distributed to clinical departments.

Interview responses revealed that genetics/genomics are underutilized in clinical practice, more education is needed for trainees and clinicians, and having clinicians with genetics expertise within departments is crucial to improving the utilization of genetics/genomics.

Among non-geneticist physicians (n = 144) surveyed, 82% reported they would be more comfortable using genetics/genomics in clinical practice with additional training. Lack of knowledge was cited as the primary reason for not ordering genetic tests (51%). Only 34% reported participating in genetics continuing medical education (CME); among those who had not participated, 65% cited lack of awareness of CME courses while 15% cited lack of need. Importantly, the vast majority (90%) of non-geneticist physicians indicated they would benefit from additional training. The leading topics of interest included information about genetic testing options and communication of results, human genetics fundamentals, and ethical issues.

Lack of knowledge impedes clinicians from incorporating genetics/genomics into practice and teaching, and the vast majority of clinicians desire more training. Additional training is essential to increase the number of genomically literate clinicians and educators. Next steps include working with clinical departments to develop general and specialty-specific training materials for clinicians and trainees.

1. Mikat-Stevens NA et al. Genet Med 17(3), 169–176 (2015)
2. Hauser D et al. Health Aff (Millwood) 37(5), 793–800 (2018)
3. Vorderstrasse A et al. J Contemp Med Educ 3(1), 14–19 (2015)

244 - Reimagining the Use of Human Patient Simulator: a Bridging Tool Between Science Learning and Its Applications to the Clinical Environment in Medical Education

Dr Elizabeth Prabhakar
Brunel University London
Reimagining the use of Human Patient Simulator: A bridging tool between science learning and its applications to the clinical environment in medical education.

Elizabeth Prabhakar1, Richard Helyer2 and Steven Roberts3
1Brunel Medical School, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, UK (previously University of West England, Bristol, UK)
2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 3Quayside Medical Practice, Newhaven, East Sussex, UK

To enable early years medical students to understand the application of foundational science to clinical practice, using a Human Patient Simulator. This will provide the learning continuum for medical students transitioning from learners to practitioners.

Students investigated the effects of haemorrhage on a simulated male patient, 90 kg, involved in an automobile accident. Normal blood volume 70 ml/kg. The “patient” was bled (ml): 0, 600, 1200, 2100 and 3000. Heart rate, systolic BP, pulse pressure, central venous pressure, total peripheral resistance, cardiac output and respiratory rate were recorded on a structured worksheet. Fluid loss was calculated as a percentage of total blood volume and classified into stages I-IV of haemorrhagic shock. Shock index was also calculated.

Data obtained from the simulator was displayed graphically demonstrating the relationship between circulating blood volume as a function of systolic BP or heart rate; central venous pressure vs stroke volume. Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance were also analysed in different stages of shock. Students benefitted from observing the clinical features of shock like weak pulse, tachycardia, hypotension.

Students were able to explain their observations using their physiology knowledge and give reasonable suggestions for restoring haemodynamic stability. In later clinical years, students would be expected to engage in more complex discussions regarding management with intravenous fluid therapy and/or blood products. The graphs compelled students to think critically and make connections between foundational theory and clinical practice. The lessons learned in this report were that Flexner’s 2+3 medical model of teaching had to be disrupted to integrate the basic science and clinical science. This is a work in progress and will continue into the future, using different clinical scenarios to help learners transition to skilled practitioners.

245 - Assessment of Clinician and Student Perceptions of the Importance of Embryology in the Medical Curriculum

Zachary Bennett
Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University
Assessment of Clinician and Student Perceptions of the Importance of Embryology in the Medical Curriculum
Zachary Bennett1and Anna Edmondson1
1Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA, 30912, U.S.A

With changes to medical curricula, it is important to determine the relevance and clinical applicability of content taught. With the prevalence of congenital anomalies, understanding embryology is imperative for clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to assess clinician and student perceptions of the relevance of embryology in the medical curriculum.

To assess perceptions of the importance of embryology in the medical curriculum, clinical faculty (n=3) and 4th year medical students (n=24 out of 190) completed a survey consisting of questions focused on assessing what aspects of embryology are perceived to be important for medical students to learn for clinical practice. Numeric data were quantified, and narrative qualitative data were coded and themed using a constant comparative method.

75% of student respondents felt their knowledge of embryology was “fair” or better prior to starting their clerkships (avg. score 3.0±1.2; 1= very poor to 6= excellent), and 58% believed that having knowledge of embryology was important for success during clerkships (avg. 2.7±1.3 out of 5). Among the organ systems, students believed Gastrointestinal (avg. score 3.47±0.32) and Genitourinary (3.28±0.37) systems embryology were the most important, while Musculoskeletal embryology was least important (1.99±0.34 out of 5). By clerkship, 92% of students claimed they came across embryology in OBGYN and Pediatrics compared to 4% in Psychiatry. Of clerkship directors surveyed, 100% believed that knowledge of embryology was “very important” for success on clinical rotations and believe students have a good knowledge base of the clinically relevant aspects of embryology when beginning rotations.


The preliminary study shows that embryology is prevalent throughout clinical rotations, but the relative importance of different topics varies. The results of this study may be useful in developing a curriculum that focuses on the embryologic topics most frequently seen in clinical rotations.

Word Count (300) = 296

246 - Mapping of the Medical Undergraduate Curriculum at the University of Zimbabwe

Shalote Chipamaunga
University of Zimbabwe
PURPOSE There is abundant literature on the increase in numbers of medical errors and there are reports that medical education is in some instances fragmented, outdated with static curricula producing ill-equipped graduates. The University of Zimbabwe embarked on efforts to transform its under-graduate medical curriculum to meet the needs of the nation more appropriately while matching international benchmarks. This abstract describes the process taken to map the curriculum.

METHODS Following the curriculum mapping framework, the exercise took place over three years (2018-2020). As far as possible, we explored the curriculum through these windows: learning outcomes; curriculum content; student assessment; learning opportunities; learning location; learning resources; timetable; staff; curriculum management; and students. We managed to get teachers to exchange information about what is being taught to enable us to determine the different components - 'declared', 'taught' and 'learned' curriculum. With a revived and reconfigured curriculum review committee, we conducted over 20 departmental meetings and workshops to enable wider collaboration with all disciplines in the Faculty. The committee convened regular, sometimes weekly meetings which ran for an average of 2 hours each.

RESULTS Over 120 faculty were involved in curriculum mapping. Initially there was some resistance and little appreciation for the mapping with expressions of "why this process?", "if it's not broken why fix it?", "this curriculum produces reputable and well sought after graduates so why interrogate it?", "we are products of this curriculum and we function well, don't we?". There was evidence of content overload; lack of horizontal and vertical integration; timetable variances; and missed opportunities for learning.

CONCLUSION Curriculum mapping, first step in curriculum review, increases faculty knowledge of the program and presents gaps or opportunities for improvement.

247 - Opportunity for Students to Improve Medical Knowledge and Receive Faculty Feedback in an Emergency Remote Setting

Nina Kumar
SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University
Nina Kumar1, Esther Yoo1, and Shirley Eisner1*, 1SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn NY, 11203 U.S.A.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, first-year medical students (MS1s) worldwide attended gross anatomy (GA) lab remotely, leaving fewer opportunities to practice anatomic terminology, collaborate, and receive faculty feedback. To address these concerns, we implemented the Recorded Dyad Presentation (RDP). This allowed MS1s to enhance their communication and anatomy skills safely and to prepare for peer-teaching during in-person progressive dissection.
The RDP was assigned to 210 MS1s during a 5-week remote GA curriculum on the musculoskeletal system. Each 3-hour Zoom session (34-37 MS1s) was led by one GA professor and held 1-3 times per week. To implement the RDP: (1) advise students to choose a partner and sign up to present; (2) provide a manual with goals, requirements, expectations, and guide to record on Zoom; (3) set clear due dates; (4) advise students to record and submit presentations; and (5) provide standardized feedback.
The student survey, sent to 210 MS1s, received 88 responses. Thirty-three of these students received faculty feedback (Feedback) and 55 did not (Control). The following percentages reflect those who “strongly agree” or “agree”. In the Feedback group, 60.6% reported improved anatomy understanding, ability to use correct anatomic terminology aloud, and oral presentation and communication skills, and 84.8% learned from faculty feedback. In the Control group, only 43.6% reported improved anatomy understanding, 45.5% ability to use anatomic terminology, and 38.2% oral presentation and communication skills. The Feedback (72.7%) and Control (61.8%) groups both enjoyed working with a partner. Data analysis will be completed for final presentation.
The RDP promotes peer-teaching, collaboration, and professional development in a remote environment. Providing students with feedback is imperative to successfully implement the RDP and to derive the pedagogic benefits.

248 - Comparing Educational Equivalency of International Clinical Rotations

Nicole Dettmann
MCPHS University

Nicole Dettmann, DSc, MPH, PA-C, MCPHS University, Worcester, MA 01608 U.S.A.

In recent years, there’s been rapid growth of international medical rotations. A survey conducted by the Physician Assistant Education Association in 2018 reported over 159 PA students from 99 institutions participated in international rotations. There is little analysis of the quality of these experiences. One question asked is can “core rotations” be completed internationally? This research will compare the educational equivalency of international clinical rotations and clinical rotations in the United States.

From a 2018 class of 125 PA students, 10 students (n=10) or 8.0% participated in international Women’s Health (WH) rotations in Bolivia. Data from rotations was used to compare these students with students who completed WH in the US. Scores for the WH end-of-rotation exams (EORE), preceptor, and student evaluations were collected for data analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for both domestic and international groups. Mean scores were compared using t-tests for interval data and Mann Whitney U tests for ordinal data.

No statistical significance (p

249 - Medical Students' Perceptions Regarding USMLE Step 1 Study Resources

Cheryl Vasan
Cooper Medical School of Rowan University
Medical Students’ Perceptions Regarding USMLE Step 1 Study Resources 
Emily Hansinger1, Cecillia Lee1, Nagaswami Vasan2 and Cheryl Melovitz-Vasan3

1. Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, NJ, USA.

2. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, NJ, USA.

3. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, NJ, USA.

Achievement in the USMLE Step 1 examination is a milestone for medical students. Examination scores are routinely used to screen for residency interviews, thus creating increased stress on students to perform well. This has resulted in increased use of commercial resources to prepare for Step 1. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence medical students’ decisions to use commercially available Step 1 resources.
An anonymous survey was sent to 227 second and third year medical students at Cooper Medical School during the fall of 2020. The survey contained questions regarding commercial resources used for Step I preparation, money willing to spend on resources, motivation for using resources and the school’s role in preparing students for Step 1. This study was approved by Rowan University’s IRB.
Sixty-three students (27.8%) responded to the survey. Fifty-one percent of students use 3-4 commercial resources. Sixty-eight percent did not set a total dollar limit on what they would spend on resources, with 43% spending between $300.00-$600.00 dollars. First Aid (95.2%), UWorld (85.7%), Pathoma videos (85.7%) and Anki flashcards (85.7%) were the most frequently used resources. Price (50.8%) and peers (36.5%) influenced students’ decisions to purchase commercial resources. In addition, students indicated they used commercially available resources to: manage study time (53.9 strongly agree), alleviate anxiety (36.5% strongly agree), and supplement the school’s curriculum (57.1% strongly agree).
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to identify factors that influence medical students’ choices regarding the use of commercially available Step I resources. Among the choices, price, peers, management of study time and anxiety, as well as curriculum supplementation were all found to be influential factors in the decision to purchase and use commercially available Step I resources.

250 - Perceptions of Leadership and Professionalism Values Among Medical Students in Gross Anatomy Dissection

Tanner Stumpe
Medical College of Georgia

Tanner R. Stumpe1, Samantha Benevides1, and Anna Edmondson1, 1Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, U.S.A.


Patient outcomes are highly impacted by the extent of collaboration between the healthcare team. Along with anatomical expertise, anatomy dissection provides opportunities for students to gain insight on personal leadership style, attain robust interpersonal skills, and develop clinical competencies. This project’s aim was to determine the medical student perceptions and attitudes concerning gross anatomy dissection in order to assess evolution of core values, attainment of professional skills, and collaborative capabilities that are critical for success as a medical provider.


First-year medical students (n=106 out of 190) completed a survey assessing perceptions and attitudes of gross anatomy dissection upon completion of the first-year curriculum. The survey consisted of Likert, narrative response, and multiple-choice questions. Students (n=14) also participated in semi-structured focus groups. Content analysis for the focus group data was performed using the constant comparative method for theming and interpretation.


Of students surveyed, 63% agreed or strongly agreed that dissecting with other students helped them develop leadership skills (avg. 4.29±0.46), and 73.5% of students agreed or strongly agreed that their fellow dissection group members possessed good leadership skills (avg. 4.37±0.49). 73% of students found that team dissection helped facilitate learning how to interact professionally (avg. 4.27±0.45). 81% of students that agreed or strongly agreed that their group members possessed good leadership skills also reported that dissection made them think more critically about location and function of anatomical structures. In focus group sessions, 100% of participants perceived dissection had a positive impact on enhancement of leadership and/or professionalism skills.


The data show that cadaveric dissection serves a unique role in enhancing student interaction and promotes a space for leadership and professional skill development. Further development of this hidden curriculum involving cadaveric dissection may be helpful to ensure collaboration and professional interaction.

251 - Assessment of First Year Medical Students' Cognitive Learning Strategies of the Cranial Nerves

Shahar Laks
Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University
Shahar Laks, Anna Edmondson PhD, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta GA 30912 U.S.A.


Medical students often have a difficult time understanding the cranial nerves and transferring that knowledge to clinical practice. Students often resort to rote memorization instead of cognitive learning strategies, or may avoid focusing on the content altogether. This study’s aim was to assess medical student cognitive learning strategies in regards to cranial nerve anatomy and its related clinical applications.


First year medical students (n= 165 out of 190) were asked to complete a survey at the end of the curriculum to assess their knowledge, clinical application, and approach to learning cranial nerves. Students (n=12) were subsequently recruited to participate in virtual semi-structured focus groups to further assess their cognitive learning strategies. Comments from surveys and focus groups were themed, quantified, and analyzed.


52% of students found learning the cranial nerves difficult or very difficult, compared to 41% neutral and 7% easy or very easy. The most common explanations for student perceived difficulty levels included the volume of material and amount of small details for the very difficult/difficult group (11% and 19% of respondents respectively), improvement with time and spaced repetition for the neutral group (11% and 8% of respondents respectively), and previous background knowledge for the easy/very easy group (45% of respondents). When approaching information for the first time, students focused on creating associations (21%), compiling all the information into summary tables (23%), and focused on class lecture material (47%). 59 % of students who participated in focus groups stated that the biggest obstacle to learning was transitioning to online learning due to COVID-19.

Medical students struggle with the large quantity of material, though they note improvement with spaced exposure. Medical curricula should focus on incorporating metacognition and active learning strategies to promote improved learning techniques.

Word count (300) = 290

252 - The Process of Creating New Curricular Content Through Faculty-student Feedback and Negotiations

Paul Chastain
Univ of Ill School of Medicine
The ever-evolving nature of medical practice means that teaching faculty will inevitably need to adapt curricular content to reflect these changes. Faculty then must create content that reflects knowledge and skills that future clinicians will need to know and work with students to refine and optimize these new educational experiences. This iterative refinement process is underscored by the potential for misalignment between what faculty and student deem valuable or preferable. We describe how faculty used student feedback during a 3-year process of creating, introducing, evaluating, and adapting an Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) course in our new curriculum.

When we assessed student feedback for EBM from the Class of 2022 (AY 2018 - 2019; 2nd year of our new curriculum), we noticed that while students successfully answered EBM questions 91% of the time and students’ feedback suggested that our EBM faculty reached their goals and learning objectives for their sessions, student comments indicated that they were unsatisfied with EBM as a whole (general comments were: Why are the sessions mandatory? We know this already. Just focus on giving us lots of application exercises in class).

For the Class of 2023, the EBM team decided to make the sessions non-mandatory, had fewer sessions, and only focused on applications in class. When we analyzed the EBM data for this class, students performed ~13 % lower on EBM questions, students complained that they needed to discuss the basics in class, and students felt the learning objectives and goals for each session were not being met.

For the Class of 2024 (our current M1 class), the faculty kept all sessions non-mandatory, had more sessions, discussed basic concepts at the beginning of their session, and had application exercises centered around the other content being discussed during the week. So far, the student comments and their performance indicate that they are once again happy with EBM.

Utilizing student comments and feedback, while helpful, should not be the only thing that governs curriculum decisions/content changes. Considerations should also include performance data, faculty thoughts, and content.

253 - Applying Content Analysis for Development of Professionalism Curriculum

Mary Manis
Sam Houston State University
Mary Manis, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville TX, 77340 U.S.A.
Many definitions exist for professionalism in medicine, and various expert organizations have published recommendations for professionalism curriculum requirements for undergraduate medical education. In order to determine which concepts should be included in the professionalism curriculum of a new osteopathic medical school, and how the concepts could best be organized for longitudinal delivery, content analysis methods were applied to the text in these documents. This abstract describes the project and its outcomes.
The author began the project one year prior to the start of our inaugural class in fall, 2020. A quantitative content analysis was applied to assess the components of professionalism in programmatic educational objectives and external documents directed at osteopathic medical students, medical residents, and practicing physicians. An initial interactive set of categories was determined, text was coded by hand, and categories were added through the coding process. Translation rules were created from counts of the most frequently occurring words or word pairs, literature review, and personal professional knowledge. Proximity analysis was applied to determine co-occurrence of concepts, and a cognitive map was created for data visualization.
Content analysis yielded determination of the interrelationships between the 6 principles of medical ethics and the 43 words and two-word groups (i.e. respect and informed consent) that form the recommended components of professionalism for undergraduate medical education. The cognitive mapping and data from conceptual frequency and proximity analysis were used to outline and develop material and plan delivery of longitudinal four-year curriculum in professionalism at our osteopathic medical school.
Applying content analysis methods to “communications” from multiple sources with recommendations for professionalism curriculum requirements was a structured approach to identifying and presenting important aspects of the content in a clear and effective manner. It resulted in the development of comprehensive curriculum materials and a plan for their cohesive delivery to our osteopathic medical students.

254 - Elevating the Voices: Incorporating Multiple Narratives in the Study of Disease in a Gastrointestinal and Nutrition Second-year Medical Course

April Hatcher
University of Kentucky
Basic science coursework in the medical curriculum is traditionally focused on biological underpinnings of disease processes. There is a call, however, for a deeper dive into the sociocultural influences on disease to be threaded throughout the curriculum. This abstract describes a classroom innovation designed to incorporate multiple diverse perspectives to enrich students’ understanding of the ways in which social determinants of health affect various health risks and outcomes.
The project functioned as a virtual mini-symposium. Groups were assigned to six categories: malnutrition, oral/pharyngeal health, esophageal/gastric disease, chronic liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and GI cancers. There were six groups per category (5-6 students per group). This assignment was scaffolded to first include a group-selected title/description within the overarching theme and a role each student would interview. For example, one group interviewed these roles: medicine/pediatric physician, a patient’s legal guardian, pediatric gastroenterologist, a special needs foster care home manager, and a registered dietician nutritionist. Students submitted 3-5 questions for their interviewee as part of the assignment.
For the symposium there were 36 small group presentations scheduled throughout a two-hour period via six different Zoom accounts. Groups presented a brief background of their project, a creative synthesis of the narratives each student brought back to the group, and reflections on how they would use lessons learned. Students also attended presentations of their peers; during each 20-minute interval, there were six concurrent sessions presented on a range of GI conditions.
This project was designed for students to move beyond an understanding of the pathophysiology of a disease process and explore the societal and cultural factors that are integral to the lived experience of the patient. The college community supported the students. The Dean and College of Medicine leadership, including the basic science course directors, members of the curriculum committee, and associate deans attended.

255 - Steps on Establishing a Faculty Development Curriculum for Health Science Educators in a New Medical School

Karina Madrigal
PURPOSE New Medical Schools need health science educators, to teach throughout the medical education continuum from basic science to clinical years. The need to establish a defined faculty development curriculum for health science educators will aid in standardizing best teaching practices and build a potential master teacher to move the curriculum toward active learning and innovation. The UTRGV SoM is a distributed campus, to achieve increase outreach we will offer synchronous and asynchronous online faculty development during the pandemic. This poster will share our progress to date. METHODS A pilot, faculty development program, was established from faculty needs assessment data, teaching observations, and student evaluations was rolled out in FY 2020. A designated faculty development curriculum was recommended to faculty and provided via synchronous and asynchronous viewing through videos and PowerPoints on a designated Blackboard site. The advancement of the continuum of best teaching practices will be measured by sessions completed, faculty feedback, and comparison of prior F2F faculty development data for 2016-2019. RESULTS We will present how this need-based curriculum session is delivered and received for best teaching practices among health science educators. We will discuss the cost of establishing the program, return on investment, advantages, and barriers to online implementation in a distributed campus during a pandemic. CONCLUSION There is a need to improve faculty development opportunities that are interactive, self-directed, and offered online. These recommendations could result in increased synchronous and asynchronous faculty development attendance and learning and, in turn, increased student academic achievement.